Thyroid gland diseases

Classification of diseases of the thyroid gland, adopted in 1961, at the International Congress of the socialist countries on the problem of endemic goiter.
1. Congenital abnormalities of the thyroid gland.
2. Endemic goiter (see Goiter). 3. Sporadic goiter (see Goiter). 4. Diffuse toxic goiter (see diffuse toxic Goiter). 5. Hypothyroidism (see). 6. Inflammatory diseases of the thyroid gland (see Thyroiditis). 7. Damage: open and closed. 8. Tumours (see below).
To anomalies of development of thyroid cancer include: aplasia (congenital absence of the thyroid gland), hypoplasia (underdevelopment of the thyroid gland), and the preservation of the thyroglossal duct followed by the formation of the middle cervical cyst, extension education thyroid tissue.
When toxic goitre, some infections (diphtheria, scarlet fever) can be arterial blood thyroid gland; endemic goitre, tumors, hemorrhages. If failure of the pituitary gland, after treatment of the diseases of the thyroid gland radioactive iodine, occasionally after application of antithyroid drugs (mercazole and others) atrophy of the thyroid gland. In the various forms of goiter, tumors and other pathologies in the thyroid gland dystrophic process. During puberty, pregnancy, goiter, insufficient iodine in the diet, after PoE thyroid gland was observed hypertrophy of the thyroid gland.
Damage to the thyroid gland can be open or closed. In closed injuries shown peace and the local use of cold. With the increasing hematomas and shortness of breath - surgery, if necessary tracheotomy (see). In open injuries stop bleeding and debridement (see the Wound, injury).
Tumors of the thyroid gland. To benign tumors of the thyroid gland include adenoma and cystadenoma. Clinically it is not always possible to establish their true nature; the nature of the tumor determine histologically by biopsy or after its removal.
To malignant tumors thyroid include various forms of cancer and sarcoma (is extremely rare).
In the early stages of cancer of the thyroid gland clinical manifestations difficult to distinguish from goiter, however, increasing one lobe of the thyroid gland, a fast-growing site or density of thyroid gland palpation may be suspicious for cancer. Young people metastatic thyroid cancer in cervical lymph nodes is often mistaken for tuberculous lymphadenitis and patients subjected to prolonged failure to cure TB dispensaries. Thyroid cancer should be differentiated from goiter, chronic thyroiditis, chlamydia, retikulosarkoma and other
The diagnosis can have the test with the injection of radioactive iodine, mediastinoscopy (chest tumor localization), diagnostic biopsy of the tumor.
Treatment of thyroid cancer in the unstarted cases is radical surgery. With locally advanced cancer of individual evidence used remote gamma-therapy, sometimes inside-wound introduction of radioactive compounds. When multiple metastases use oral administration of radioactive iodine. Patients with suspected cancer of the thyroid gland should be urgently sent to the hospital for examination and treatment. Forecast in a timely surgery and subsequent remote gamma-therapy favorable.

Classification. At the International Congress of the socialist countries on the problem of endemic goiter in 1961, adopted the following nomenclature and classification of diseases of the thyroid gland.
1. Congenital anomaly of the thyroid gland: a) aplasia and hypoplasia (usually accompanied by hypothyroidism or myxedema); b) ectopia of the gland tissue (often giving the beginning aburrirse speaking, sublingual and other forms of goiter); C) the cleft thyroglossal duct (giving rise to the development of cysts, fistulas and, in particular, the median cysts neck).
2. Endemic goiter (and endemic cretinism) with division: (a) by size of the thyroid gland of degree 0, I, II, III, IV, V; b) form: diffuse nodular, mixed (is Genesis adenomatous); C) functional manifestations: euthyroid, and hyperthyroid, hypothyroid, hypothyroid with signs of cretinism.
Hyperthyroid nodular goiter with pronounced symptoms of thyrotoxicosis allocate special form - toxic adenoma of the thyroid gland.
3. Sporadic goiter with divisions in size, form, and functional manifestations as endemic goitre.
4. Diffuse toxic goiter (synonym: graves ' disease, thyrotoxicosis, primary thyroid diffuse goiter) separation by gravity to form: a) easy;
b) medium gravity; C) severe.
5. Hypothyroidism separation by gravity to form: a) easy; b) medium gravity;
C) heavy (myxedema).
6. Inflammatory diseases of the thyroid gland: a) acute thyroiditis (strumitis), shared by manifestations nagnoenie and purulent; b) subacute thyroiditis; C) thyroiditis (fibrous Riedel and lymphomatosis Hashimoto); d) a rare inflammatory (tuberculosis, syphilis and others) and parasitic diseases (actinomycosis, echinococcosis and others).
7. Damage: a) open; b) closed.
8. A malignant tumor, a cancer, sarcoma, metastatic adenoma, hemangioendothelioma, goiter Langhans and other
Congenital abnormalities of the thyroid gland - see above Pathological anatomy; endemic and sporadic goiter - see Goiter; diffuse toxic goiter - see diffuse toxic Goiter; inflammatory diseases, tuberculosis and syphilis thyroid - see Thyroiditis.
Benign tumors. Among benign tumors of the thyroid gland are most often found adenomas, usually sporadic. Microscopically distinguish papillary and follicular adenoma. Small adenomas not provoke complaints of the patients, with the growth they compress adjacent organs (trachea, esophagus), and this determined the emergence of complaints. Palpation is determined dense, mobile smooth painless swelling. Sometimes there are multiple adenomas. Toxic adenoma are marked the same changes as in diffuse toxic goiter.
From other benign tumors of thyroid gland have been observed fibroids, angiomas, teratoid tumors.