The way inflow and action of the poison in the body

The way inflow and action of the poison in the body (toxicodynamics and toxicokinetics). Morphological changes are observed in the organs through which the poison enters or out of the body, or in which it is committed. Pathological changes in these bodies in turn, affect the clinical picture of poisoning and the dynamics of its development.
The General reaction to the action of chemical substances is nervous-reflexive nature. Local action is celebrated in cases where toxic substance possesses chemical activity, leading to the development cauterizing, inflammatory or irritating effect. The local action of toxic substances in a greater or lesser extent an effect of General toxic (resorptive) character, manifested in the admissions process poison in the body.
In action of certain chemicals and drugs celebrated selective toxicity - monoxide disrupts the function of hemoglobin, morphine depresses the function of the respiratory centre and other
Toxic substances can be ingested orally, rectally, and bypassing the gastrointestinal tract, inhalation (by inhalation, through the skin, subcutaneous, intramuscular and intravenous, as well as through the wound and burn the surface, through the vagina, the conjunctiva, the spinal canal, urinary bladder and in other ways. In acute poisoning by chemical substances most often enter the body through the mouth.
When ingested, only a small proportion of the chemicals can be absorbed through the mucous membranes of the oral cavity and esophagus. The intensity of absorption of the poison is often proportional to its concentration (dose) in the stomach.
It may reduce the intake of food poisons, located in the stomach (its composition, the rate of gastric emptying). Oil solutions toxic substances are not absorbed in the stomach and intestines. The absorption of the chemicals under intestines, also depends on a number of conditions (their solubility in lipids and others).
Quick emptying of the stomach slows down the process in the intestine. Vomiting helps to remove the poison from the stomach and thereby weakening of intoxication. However, in case of poisoning cauterizing liquids it leads to more severe chemical burns of the esophagus and mouth, and sometimes to the defeat of the upper respiratory tract.
Chlorinated hydrocarbons, alcohols, mercury drugs, FOS and other substances can cause poisoning at their penetration through the skin.
Acute poisoning in cases subcutaneous, intramuscular or intravenous injection of drugs occurs when an overdose or erroneous introduction of toxic substances instead of therapeutic agents and other Drugs in some cases can enter yourself subcutaneously and intramuscularly and the patients themselves. Power toxicity when administered intravenously poisons in the body several times exceeds the effect when administered orally.
Very rare admission of chemicals through the conjunctiva and vagina - accidental various toxic liquids on the conjunctiva or vagina chemicals for interruption of pregnancy and other
The most common acute toxicity when combined alcohol intoxication with barbiturates, tranquilizers, cauterizing liquids, chlorinated hydrocarbons, blood poisons, heavy metals and other substances. With combined use of methyl and ethyl alcohols reduces the severity of intoxication from methyl alcohol. In other cases of co poisoning lead to summation or potentiating effects of toxicity.
The distribution of chemical substances in the body occurs immediately after their intake. As suction in blood and lymph chemicals are distributed between the liquid part of these environments, and in the intercellular and intracellular fluids. In the blood of a number of chemicals shall take reversible bond with her protein and provides a dynamic reserve poison in the body (at least reduce the concentration of unbound poison in the blood comes the breakdown of complex protein - poison). Also installed mobile equilibrium quantity of poison in the intercellular and intracellular fluid, which moves in one direction or another, depending on the intensity of absorption of the poison, its metabolic transformations, excretion from the body. Different medicinal substances and poisons have the ability to selectively accumulate in certain organs: adrenaline - mainly in the heart, the iodine in the thyroid gland, trichloroethylene is in the brain, chloroform in the adrenal glands, tipos - in the salivary glands, liver, kidneys.
The selection of chemicals or their metabolites from the body by all bodies with exocrine function. Most of alien substances excreted in the urine and jelchew, although there is a selection of them also with your breath, milk, saliva secretion in the digestive tract, with sweat.
Many compounds (methyl alcohol, formic acid, aniline, amidopyrine, quinine, nicotine, morphine and other) are allocated through the mucous membrane of the stomach that can be used for diagnostic purposes. In the colon are arsenic, mercury, lead and other toxins. Immediately after the intake of substances begins the process of their transformation in biological mediums (biotransformation). Biotransformation substances, as a rule, leads to increase of their solubility in water, which helps to eliminate them with urine. Metabolism poisons proceeds with the participation of enzymes. There are several mechanisms biotransformation of chemicals and medicines. Oxidation is the most common mechanisms for the biotransformation of poisons.
A special place in poisoning is oxidation, called "lethal synthesis". So, it is known that non-poisonous proroksana acid in the organism of animals is oxidized to ptolemanda acid, related to highly toxic compounds. Such poisons as methyl alcohol, ethylene glycol, aniline, urotropine, some FOS and other compounds in the body are oxidized to more toxic metabolites.