Braking is a physiological process in the Central nervous system resulting in a delay of the excitation. Braking may not be distributed like excitation (see), as a local process. The inhibition occurs at the time of the meeting of the two excitations, one of which is inhibitory, and other things break.
The braking process was first shown in 1862, the Russian physiologist I. M. Sechenov. The frog was carried out incision of the brain at the level of visual hillocks with the removal of the big hemispheres of the brain. Time was measured reflex otdergivanija hind legs when immersed it in a solution of sulfuric acid (a method of Turk). When imposing cut visual hillocks crystal salt time reflex increased. Crystal salt, irritating visual hillocks, causes arousal, which descends to the spinal centers and inhibits their activities.
In the formation of behavioral reactions of animals and humans along with the conditioned reflex excitation of the Central nervous system always has the processes and the conditioned reflex inhibition. There are external (unconditional) and internal (conditional) braking.
Protective inhibition. The term "protective braking" shall mean the property of the braking process to protect the cells from dangerous for their life and health of developments related to prolonged or excessive excitement. Theory of a protective inhibition created and justified I. P. Pavlov.
Daily natural sleep can serve as an example of a protective inhibition, but most clearly of a protective inhibition occurs when the beyond braking arising under the influence of the superstrong stimuli.
Theory of protective and compensatory braking function is of great interest for medical practice, and in some cases has led to the undoubted practical achievements (application of hypnotic-sedative drugs in the treatment of traumatic shock, hypothermia and operational interventions, and so on).
External braking associated with the activities of the reticular formation of the brain. It arises in the case of sudden occurrence of any foreign to the observed reaction stimulant and is manifested in the fact that the conditional reflex (see) is not formed completely or education it stops. A variety of external braking is beyond braking arising from excessive increase in the strength of the conditioned stimulus.
Internal inhibition, or conventional, is a specific cortical and occurs when the conditional stimulus is not supported unconditional. Depending on the conditions of formation of internal braking distinguish the following types: postelnoe, differencirovannoe, conventional brake, lagging. Postelnoe braking develops in that case, if after the production of the conditioned reflex conditional stimulus is not supported unconditional. In the conditioned reflex is weakened or completely quenched. Differencirovannoe inhibition occurs at constant reinforcement of the conditioned stimulus and neodrepanis stranger, conditional reflex occurs only on conditional stimulus. Internal braking is produced, and if so-called conventional brakes. If prearranged signal And always supported unconditional stimulus, and a combination of signals to B+not reinforce, the signals of B+And a conditioned reflex will not. Thus, the signal is conditioned reflex, and adding to it the signal B causes inhibition of the conditioned reflex. Signal B is called conventional brakes. Delayed braking occurs when the reinforcement of the conditioned stimulus unconditional through a significant period of time. When increasing the interval of 3-5 minutes or more shifts, and the manifestation of the conditioned reflex reaction. In the first minutes after the conditioned stimulus is observed deceleration of the conditioned reflex reaction. Internal braking is an important mechanism in adaptive activity of animals, especially of man. Different kinds of internal braking develop in the process of individual development of an organism. A person, especially a child, internal braking should be educated, which is of great importance to the teaching process.