Toxic effect of alcohol

When it comes to the toxicity of alcohol, you should know that the admission of alcohol in the body (especially the systematic) to the foreground can act and secondary effects. They can be associated with shifts redox potentials, with switching exchange processes on the use of alcohol as an energy source or source of carbon, for example in the biosynthesis reactions. Even undoubted direct and specific toxic effects of alcohol will occur at the background of the aggravating the imbalance in metabolism.
Toxic (toxic) effects of alcohol on the body is determined by several main points. First of all, alcohol is a membrane-acting agent. All living things are composed of cells and cell membranes is a lipid complexes that contain protein molecules (mainly enzymes), carbohydrates and lipids. Being dissolved in membrane lipids and breaking hydrophobic interactions in the membranes, alcohol reduces the orderliness of lipids, i.e. thins membrane. This leads to a change in membrane permeability and the status of cytoplasm in the cells: violated the functioning of enzymes and the processes that these enzymes catalyze. Besides alcohol inhibits the transport of ions, such as calcium, through the membrane.
Alcohol increases the permeability of GEB (blood-brain barrier), including for various substances, especially if their intake over time coincides with the admission of alcohol.
Secondly, the presence of hydroxyl group (OH) allows ethyl alcohol to form esters with some amino acids, change the interaction of L-glutamate with plasmatic membranes of the synaptosomes structures.
Third, alcohol has a direct impact on blocking protein synthesis.
Fourthly, alcohol able to compete with other, similar built molecules for places on the surface of cell membranes.
Many researchers, however, are inclined to consider acetaldehyde, formed by the oxidation of ethanol, as the main culprit of toxic effects when alcohol use. This is due to the high reactivity of substances, due to the fact that thanks to the carbonyl group of the molecule is easily included in the various processes.
Interacts with proteins, acetaldehyde is able to qualitatively change proteins.
Installed and toxic effects of acetaldehyde on lipid components of cellular membranes and related enzymes.
Interacting with dopamine and norepinephrine, acetaldehyde forms tetrahydroisoquinoline. The following group of alkaloids, formed by the interaction of acetaldehyde from derivative of tryptophan and tryptamine, form carboline. These compounds have a pronounced hallucinogenic and psychotropic activity. Tetrahydroisoquinoline in its properties can compete with the natural neurotransmitters. So, in experiments on animals obtained evidence to suggest their participation in the formation of the prerequisites of alcoholism. The same assumptions are expressed in relation β-carbolines, which.
The large amounts of alcohol can cause loss of consciousness, sensation and motor activity.
So, the "disconnect" consciousness, the effect of alcohol has long known to man. At the dawn of surgery alcohol was used as a means of analgesia and anesthesia patients. Under alcoholic anesthesia was carried out and a very serious operation - amputation, etc. On the Central nervous system alcohol operates dwuhfazno. In the first phase dominates the excitement in the second phase gives way to depression.
There is evidence of correlation (correlation) between the state of excitation in the first phase of action of drugs and experience euphoria. At the same time, euphoric state, it is difficult to isolate from the overall picture of the action of alcohol. After the initial mental status changes rapidly develop a dampening effect.
Much of the alcohol action depends on the dose. In this sense, alcohol, perhaps one of the most "dzoragyugh" drugs. Some time drinker may retain the ability to use the desired dose of alcohol. The main strategy is simple: dosing, as long as you can hold the body in the first phase, in order to delay or prevent the onset of phase II. And from time to time, succeed.
Toxic effect of alcohol begins immediately after his admission. However, in mild intoxication it is hardly noticeable, because the degree of poisoning CNS still small. With an increase of intoxication increases and toxic effects.