Trachea

trachea
The larynx, trachea and major bronchi: 1 - the larynx; 2 - trachea; 3 - bifurcation of the trachea; 4 - the left main bronchus; 5 - the right main bronchus.

The windpipe (trachea) - throat - is the direct continuation of the larynx. Looks tube length 11-13 cm, consisting of 16-20 cartilage semirings, United dense fibrous connective tissue (Fig.). Place dividing the trachea to the bronchi is called bifurcation of the trachea. At the top of the trachea is more anteriorly, and below goes backwards. Trachea lined with mucous membrane covered with a ciliated epithelium, villi which move the cranial. In the submucosal layer lot of mixed mucous glands. The lining of the trachea, and bronchi (see), has great suction capability that allows you to enter into the trachea by inhalation of medicinal substance.
Examination of the top departments of the trachea possible laryngeal mirror or with direct laryngoscopy (see).
Inflammation of the lining of the trachea - tracheitis (see) is most often the result of a downward (less bottom-up) catarrh of the upper respiratory tract. As a rule, tracheitis occurs with acute infectious diseases (influenza, measles, whooping cough). Tuberculosis often affects the lower third of the trachea and its bifurcation. Syphilis (tertiary) trachea is less common than the larynx. Benign neoplasm of trachea similar to those in the larynx, but are less common. There is air tumor - trakieli. From malignant tumours of the trachea meet sarcoma and cancer. In clinical practice, there are also stenosis of trachea different etiology. In these cases required a tracheotomy (see).