The care of trauma patients

The first priority is prevention of shock (see), pulmonary complications, pain management.
Due to the specifics of the fight against shock currently organized special resuscitation ward. The patient needs maximum quiet, quick, hassle-free implementation of medical appointments. The most important thing to care - continued monitoring of patients; motor excitation, darkened conscience, lowering blood pressure requiring immediate reporting to a doctor and emergency relief measures. We must remember that the shock may lead to sudden death, therefore the patient is not serviced, make sudden movements; with motor excitation resorting to sleeping pills. The patient, derived from the state of shock, needs further unremitting attention as cooling and dehydration may lead to the re-shock.
In closed injuries care aimed at creating peace damaged body, preventing hemorrhage: compressive bandage, elevation of extremities, if necessary immobilization (see) and anesthesia (see). First, to reduce inflammatory phenomena recommended cold, with a decrease of edema - thermal treatments and physiotherapy.
In dislocation (see) similar tactics.
It must be remembered that in open fractures first condition is to prevent further displacement of bone fragments and anesthesia: immobilization of standard buses (see Bus, splinting) or any improvised material, painkillers. At damage of the skin and soft tissues impose sterile dressing and introduce preventive dose of tetanus serum 1500-3000 ED (Besedke). Before applying the plaster bandages (see Plaster technique) sister should carefully inspect and clean the skin, grazes to grease a 10% alcoholic iodine solution, or 1% solution of brilliant green. Hair is better to shave off. The patient should be transferred to the chamber after hardening of plaster of Paris (about 15-20 minutes), being careful when porting. For large plaster bandages under the mattress enclose wooden shield that prevents sagging bed, and consequently, the broken plaster. To accelerate the evaporation of moisture plaster cast on the first day, it should be kept open. To reduce swelling limbs give elevated position. The appearance of pain in the extremities, cyanosis, numbness of the fingers indicates developing swelling and poor circulation in the limbs. In such cases, the bandages are cut and re-fix the usual bandages. When pain after the imposition of the cast drug is not allowed.
During all types of traction (see) the patient has a great inconvenience. To prevent and eliminate roughness under belts enclose cotton-gauze pads. Monitor fixing tires. When skeletal traction observed strict asepsis, apply anesthesia. The great value has the correct leg position. The knee should be above the fold bus, the stop is at right angles to the tibia. This is due to proper placement of the patient and regulation dilatory cargo. Under the knee and Achilles tendon enclose cotton-gauze pads, a warning bedsores. In order to prevent stagnation of pneumonia necessary breathing exercises. The treatment of fractures special place early therapeutic gymnastics and massage.

  • The care of patients with fractures of the spine
  • Care for patients with brain damage
  • The care of patients with burns