A knee injury

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In the knee joint may be damaged bones (patella, Misaki femur or tibia, myshelovke exaltation of the tibia) and ligamentous-hand machine (side, cruciate ligament, meniscus external and internal). These injuries occur due to direct damage to the knee - kick into the area of joint or indirect - landing from a height on straight legs (more often in going in for sports) and violent exceeding the physiological limits of normal movements. If any damage to the knee joint are bleeding in the joints, smoother outlines joint swelling and swelling), running nadkolennika, and at his tear - forked. Patient produce puncture articular cavity and the suction of her fluid, then depending on the nature of the injury treatment.

skeletal traction heel bone
Fig. 30. Skeletal traction calcaneus

Fractures of the femoral condyles or the tibia are without bias and offset. Skeletal traction is applied for the heel bone (Fig. 30) on 16-25 days fractures without shifts and by 40-45 days at fracture with displacement. On the 2nd day after the application of traction in the first period is prescribed physiotherapy: on the background of General developmental and breathing exercises active movements of the fingers, patella, lifting pelvis relying on her good leg. After removing the skeletal traction is applied deep plaster of Paris splint is placed from your toes to lower buttock crease for a period of 1-1 .5 months. The patient is put on a pair of crutches and learn to walk at first not advancing, and then stepping on the foot. Of special exercises are performed: the stretching and bending of the fingers, sending pulses to the flexion and extension in the ankle joint, movement of the patella with voltage of the quadriceps muscle of thigh, all kinds of exercises for hip joint: flexion, extension, extension, lead. Exercises are performed lying on the back or standing on crutches or in gymnastic walls. The patient learn to walk the stairs with crutches. To combat the swelling of the feet are recommended 3-4 times a day for 15 to 20 minutes to lie lifted by legs (bend from the hips 135-140 degrees). For this crutches put to the headboard wide end to the buttocks, on crutches put a folded blanket, and his legs.
After removal of plaster splint starts II period, therapeutic exercises. Its task is development of movements in the knee and ankle joints, the restoration of the function of the foot. Physical exercises are carried out in different initial positions: lying on his back, stomach, on the side, standing on all fours, sitting down with his foot, standing, walking, gymnastic walls.
III the period of training. Its task is training of different variants of walking, running and restoration of the functional state of the organism.
Fractures of the femoral condyles and especially the tibia offset in some cases a surgery - a fixation of fragments by metal screws. After the operation is applied deep rear of plaster of Paris splint is placed. 10-14 days starting with the development of the knee by the same method as when fractures without displacement.
The fracture of the knee without offset is fixed deep plaster Longuet from the toes up to the upper third of the thigh in 3-4 weeks. Fracture with displacement treat the surgical method is a staple of the patella. After surgery impose deep plaster of Paris splint is placed from your toes to the upper third of the thigh in 3-4 weeks. Cases of comminuted fracture of the knee delete it.
Fracture minusinskogo exaltation of the tibia is fixed deep in the rear plaster Longuet imposed from the toes up to the upper third of the thigh for 2-4 weeks. Development of the knee joint is carried out according to the standard technique restore mobility in it.