Hygienic requirements for heating

Heating has to maintain a certain level of air temperature in the room to ensure uniformity of the temperature horizontally and vertically. Heating appliances should not worsen the quality of the air in the room.
There is local heating radiators and Central heating.
Depending on the construction of local heating appliances distinguish furnace large and small heat capacity. To the furnaces of the large heat capacity is Dutch and other thick brick oven. They slowly warmed up, but Retain heat for a long time and therefore a long time keep the temperature at the same level.
Furnace small heat capacity is used for heating of premises of temporary stay of people. They rapidly but unevenly heated room, cool down quickly and therefore require frequent firing. Furnace small heat capacity pollute the air with products of burning dust, flue gases.
The disadvantage of local heating are uneven heating of premises, air pollution by gases, fuel, the danger of fire, the reduction of the useful area.
Currently widespread various Central heating system. Central heating compared with the local has a number of advantages: maintains a constant temperature of air (regardless of the ambient temperature)do not worsen air quality, creates an even temperature.
There are steam, water, panel (radiant), steam-water and air heating.
When steam heating of the coolant is steam, which in pipes under pressure is served in the room. The surface temperature of the heating devices exceeds 100 degrees. The disadvantage of this system is the inability to adjust the supply of heat, high surface temperature of the heating devices, contributing to the burning dust.
More common water heating. The coolant is hot water from the boiler in heating devices. Hot water with less specific weight, rises on the main pipeline and then by the vertical risers distributed in heating devices. If the water cycle in the system is carried out by the difference in specific gravity hot and chilled water, then the system is called with a natural impulse. If a natural urge is not enough to circulate the water, then use a circulation pump.
There are water heating of low and high pressure. When the hot-water heating system low pressure for the reception of the abundance of water formed by increasing its volume when heated, at the top of distributing pipeline joins the expansion vessel. When filling the system with water, the air trapped in the system, is removed through the expansion vessel.
The hot-water heating of low pressure maintains a constant temperature in the room, so you can take a break in the furnace. Possible Central control of the indoor temperature by regulating the water temperature. The surface temperature of the heating devices are generally below 80 degrees. This system is used for heating of premises, hospitals and public buildings.
If water heating system has no expansion vessel, at heating water in the boiler due to the increase of its volume in the system increases the pressure and the temperature of boiling water. This recycling is called the hot-water heating system for high pressure. With this system, the temperature of the heating surfaces of heating appliances significantly exceeds the permissible that may lead to the burning of dust on the surface of batteries and air pollution premises. This system is used for heating of industrial enterprises.
Recently began to arrange boiler rooms for heating campus - quarterly boilers. Widely used system of district heating - heat supply from stations that produce heat and electricity (CHP). In homes is usually arranged and hot water for household purposes.
Most hygienic is the so-called radiant (panel) heating. The heat source at such heating serve as walls, ceilings, flooring in thickness which lay heating appliances. The coolant is water or steam. Radiation heat panels reduces losses by radiation from the body surface at lower temperatures. Reduced possibility of cooling and ventilation. Radiant heating does not reduce the usable area of the premises, in the hot season with surface heating is possible to cool the room.
Currently received the use of air heating. Outside air through the air intake is fed into the heating chamber with heaters, and then through the channels is served in the room. Exhaust air is removed from the premises through exhaust channels in the ventilation shaft.
The advantage of this system is organized entering the clean air that improves airflow inside the dwelling. The disadvantages of air heating are: 1) low air humidity in the premises due to its heating in fan heaters; 2) the possibility of burning dust deposited in the channels, and air pollution heated space products of combustion of organic substances; 3) the possibility of penetration of air from one room to another and the risk of transfer of bacterial contamination.
Air heating is mainly used for heating enterprises and some public buildings.