Sanitary-hygienic requirements to the organization, equipment and sanitary maintenance of schools

To place the school in the city should be such that the radius service is not exceeded for children of primary school age 0,5 km, and for children of school age 1 to 1.5 km In rural areas, the radius of the service increases up to 5 km In these cases, organised transportation of children to school or when schools are boarding schools.
The land must fully meet the General sanitary requirements concerning the composition of the soil, groundwater levels, and others, to provide the possibility of conducting certain types of educational work (physical education, agricultural labour, science and others), as well as the organization of leisure of students.
The area of the School site depends on local conditions, type of school, the number of students. For primary school is given a plot of 0.5-1 ha, for high school - from 1 to 2 ha, for boarding school up to 3-4 ha
Green areas should occupy not less than 20% of the total area of the plot.
The school building should meet in teaching and hygienic requirements. Since 1935 in our country adopted the type of the school building with one-sided development corridors adjacent to classes that allows you to organize through ventilation classes. Wide corridors are used for the stay of students during breaks.
At present, developed and developing new projects of schools that have some distinctive features:
- the building is under construction stage-block system with warm transitions and separate classrooms for Junior and senior students;
for students staying in a time of change provides recreational halls;
- training workshops are located in a separate building.
The main premises, providing the educational process in school classes, laboratories, sports facilities, shops. To auxiliary facilities shall corridors, recreational facilities, a cloakroom, a snack bar and other
Classrooms are designed based 1.25 m2 on each student, the total area of class 50-52 m2. In our country build rectangular classes with a length of 8.2 m, and the width of 6.4 meters Height classes installed 3,3 m Air cube per student from 4.3 to 4.4 m2.
The distance from the first row of desks to Windows should be 0.5 m, the third row from the inner walls of 0.8-0.9 m, between the front desks and boards - 2.5 M. Windows are located to the left of students with orientation to the South, South-East. Oriented to the North-East and North-West it is possible not more than 25% of the classes.
Lighting affects the organ and the whole body. Therefore, the coverage of school premises should be paid special attention. Daylight factor for middle zone of the USSR shall be equal to 1.5% (in place of, the most distant from the window). The depth of the class (in side one-sided coverage - the distance from a wall with Windows to the opposite wall) shall not exceed double the height from the top of the window to the floor and light factor should be equal to 1/4-1/5. Along with natural lighting in schools should be sufficient artificial lighting. It is carried out using incandescent or fluorescent lamps and must be 150 Lux (with fluorescent light - 300 Lux). For this in the model class is 6-8 lamps by capacity 400 W, suspended at a distance of 2.8 m from the floor. Lighting should be dispersed and uniform, provided by relevant fittings (team luceta, dairy ball, lamp SC-300).
To ensure clean air, and to create a normal microclimate in school is important for the rational ventilation. Enjoy the Central forced-air ventilation or natural ventilation through transoms or air vents. From a hygienic point of view the most useful application transoms, directing the flow of cold air up and thus allows to ventilate the room in front of the children. It is advisable through ventilation, which is more effective than the usual 5-10 times.
For classrooms most favorable temperature 16-18°, relative humidity 40-60%. Temperature fluctuations in the horizontal direction shall not exceed 1-2°, vertical - 1.5-2 degrees. The chemical composition of air in the school premises regulated by the carbon dioxide content (not more than 0.1% by volume).
Necessary temperature mode in the classroom is supported heating. In institutions appropriate water heating of low pressure or panel (radiant).