The trematodozov

The trematodozov is a parasitic infection of humans and animals caused by flat parasitic worms belonging to the class of trematodes (flukes).
Trematodes have organs commit - muscle suckers (oral and abdominal). Under the surface tissues of trematodes is a double layer of muscles; there is nervous, urinary, reproductive and digestive system. Almost all of trematodes hermaphrodites, diclinous are only Schistosoma. The dimensions of the various species of trematodes range from a few millimeters to 2-7 see the Eggs of some species of trematodes when released into the water swallow shellfish, and hatched from the eggs and larvae of other actively penetrate into shellfish - intermediate hosts. In shellfish is the development and reproduction of larvae of trematodes. Some species of trematodes, except intermediate, and have additional owners - fish, crabs, crayfish.
Many trematodozov isolated in humans, domestic and wild animals. Some trematodozov (opisthorchiasis, klonorhoz, metagonimus and others) are infected by eating raw or svezheproseyannuyu fish, other - by drinking water from standing water and eating of wild aquatic plants (fasciolosis). The larvae of schistosomes float in water and actively penetrate into the bloodstream through the skin. The spread of trematodozov contributes to water pollution feces of patients containing larvae.
In the pathogenesis of trematodes great importance sensitization of the patient's organism products of metabolism and decay of trematodes with the subsequent development of allergies, the manifestations of which are particularly pronounced in the early phase of trematodes. It should also be taken into account and the mechanical effect of worms on the fabric.
In 2-4 weeks after infection occur fever, pain in muscles and joints, puffiness of the face, gastrointestinal disorders, often cough; hepatomegaly, sometimes spleen. In the blood - an increase in the number of leukocytes and eosinophilia. In late phase clinical manifestations significantly associated with localization of trematodes - opistorhisov, clonorchis, fasciolae in the liver, paragonimus in the lungs, metagonimus in the intestines, etc.
Diagnosed the trematodozov detection helminth eggs in feces and duodenal juice, and when urogenital : schistosomiasis - in the urine.
Treatment. Apply specific antihelminthic drugs (haksil, bithionol and others), as well as symptomatic and pathogenetic therapy.
In the prevention of trematodozov great significance health education and treatment of patients; it is necessary to explain the danger of eating raw and lightly salted fish.
In some cases, control is by intermediate hosts of trematodes - mollusks. Certain types of trematodozov are almost ubiquitous (fasciolosis), others are limited to certain areas; thus, opisthorchiasis prevails in Western Siberia, klonorhoz in the far East, schistosomiasis confined to the tropical and subtropical areas. Based on the availability of certain trematodozov, planned specific activities to combat them.
Separate forms of the disease - see Heterotis, Dicroceliosis, Klonorhoz, Metagonimus, Nanofilmos, Opisthorchiasis, Paragonimoz, Fascioliasis, Fasciolopsis, the Schistosomiasis.