Trichinosis

Trichinosis (trichinellosis) - helminthiasis.

the larva of Trichinella
Encapsulated the larva of Trichinella in the muscle.

The cause of trichinosis - round worms Trichinella (trichina) - Trichinella spiralis. The length of the male - 1.5 mm, females - 3-4 mm In the stage of puberty Trichinella parasites in the mucous membrane of thin intestines. Females produce eggs, which penetrate into lymphatics and blood vessels and settle in striated muscles, where are encapsulated (Fig). In the intestines Trichinella through 10-84 day perish; larvae in the musculature can live for up to two years or more.
Epidemiology. Trichinosis is a natural focal disease of humans, domestic animals (pigs, dogs, cats) and wild (bears, wolves, badgers, foxes, wild boars and others), and synanthropic rodents (rats, mice). The trichinellosis infection occurs when a person eating the meat of pigs, and often the meat of wild animals (bears, badgers, wild boar and others). Pigs are infected with trichinosis eating the corpses of dogs, cats, rats, carcass fur animals thrown hunters after removing them skins, when feeding them waste from abattoirs.
Circulation trichinellosis invasion in nature is realized in the process of predation and eating carrion. Wild animals (wolf and others) can get trichinosis and within settlements, attacking domestic animals (dogs and others) and eating their bodies on bad content the burial sites.
Pathogenesis. Important in the pathogenesis of trichinosis is the sensitization of the human body products of metabolism and decay of Trichinella With the subsequent development of allergies (see).
The clinical picture. The incubation period 3-45, usually 10-20 days. The main symptoms of trichinosis, a swelling of eyelids, puffiness of the face, fever, muscle pain, there may be swelling in the legs and hands; characteristic eosinophilia of blood. Through 1-3 days after the onset swelling of the eyelids temperature increases. Pain in the muscles of the eyeballs, limbs, trunk, and in language. Sometimes develop contractures knee and elbow joints, appears trism masticatory muscles. Often appears polymorphic skin rash. Sometimes there gastrointestinal disorders. Often there are headache, insomnia or, on the contrary, drowsiness. Eosinophilia of blood reaches 80%, and is often accompanied by leukocytosis; in the most severe cases eosinophilia, sometimes not. Sometimes trichinosis flows with atypical symptoms of meningitis, encephalitis. Possible recurrence of the disease.
Complications: pneumonia, encephalitis, thrombosis of arteries and veins, allergic myocarditis. The prognosis isgenerally favorable; however, in severe cases, death may occur.
The diagnosis is based on the clinical picture of the disease and the results of the microscopy (trihinelloskopii) pieces of muscle from the biopsies.
Treatment. Of the means of pathogenetic antiallergic therapy is used hormonal drugs. Designate a day to 40 mg of prednisoloneor 2-4 mg dexamethasone, or 60-80 ED adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). The improvement in the patient after 2-3 days, the daily dose reduced by 1/3 and continue treatment for 5-7 days. The second week, the dose is gradually reduced to the level of "support" (5 mg prednisone, 0.25 mg dexamethasone, 5-10 UNITS ACTH a day); in the dose of the drug is prescribed in 1-2 weeks. When hormonal therapy designate potassium salt to 3-4 grams per day; in food restrict sodium. In the case of mild course of the disease apply phenylbutazone, acetylsalicylic acid, diphenhydramine.
Prevention. Carcasses of pigs and wild animals used for human nutrition, and also the beasts of the animal subject to veterinary-sanitary examination and compulsory trichinellosis. All trichinellosis carcasses subjected to recycling technology. At impossibility of trihinelloskopii (expeditions) bushmeat boiled for at least 2.5 hours pieces of a thickness of not more than 2.5, see House of rodents destroy. In case of impossibility of technical recycling of animal carcasses poured kerosene and deeply buried in the burial sites.