Trichophytia (synonym ringworm) is a disease of the person (skin, hair and nails) and animals caused by fungi of the genus Trichophyton. There are trichophytosis surface, chronic and infiltrative suppurative. The incubation period lasts 5-7 days at surface trihofitii, infectious-suppurative - sometimes up to 2 months.
Surface trichophytosis transmitted from person to person by direct contact or through the objects used in patients (hats, combs and others). More sick children, high contagiousness.
The defeat of the scalp is manifested in the form of small (and sometimes large) round spots with fuzzy boundaries without sharp inflammation, covered with white scales. Hair lesions thinning, lose their Shine, break off at the height of 1-2 mm above the skin in the form of "stumps"; twisted, thinning the remnants of hair sometimes only visible under a magnifying glass. The smooth skin roundish inflammatory spots with a roll of bubble on the periphery and peeling at the center. Itching is usually absent. The nail lesions in patients with trichophytosis children occurs in 2-3%of adults (20-30% of cases. The clinical picture of defeat nails - see Onychomycosis.
trichophytia (ringworm)

Trichophytia (ringworm). Fig. 2. Chernetchina form trihofitii the scalp. Fig. 3. Suppurative trichophytosis - kerion of Celsus.

Chronic trichophytosis adults occurs more frequently in people with peripheral vascular insufficiency (acrocyanosis, arbitrations) and hypofunction of the sex glands. In the mouths of the follicles of the scalp (occipital, temporal area), there are broken at the level of the skin, the hair, the so-called black dots Zakharyin, diffuse or small peeling and small foci atrophy of the skin (Fig. 2). On the palms and soles, buttocks, extensor surfaces of the joints, legs appear blurred limited, slightly congestive painting erythematous-squamous foci with a tendency to merge among themselves. Subjective sensations there.
In infiltrative-suppurative trihofitii human infection derives from animals (mice, cows, sheep and other). The process starts with inflammation of the follicles of the scalp, beard, moustache. Gradually formed massive infiltration with defined edges, covered with crusts and numerous holes, which is squeezed out a thick yellow pus. The focus becomes uneven, increases in size, buying bluish coloration and a hemispherical shape, there is the so-called kerion Celsus (Fig. 3). Around keríon there are other pockets of infiltration, pustules, furunculosis nodes.
Among the rare species trihofitii described forumkelatemy trichophytosis and septic trichophytosis, affecting the brain, lymph nodes, mucous membranes, bones (ribs, feet), and other event of them, as a rule, is connected with the endocrine, nervous and other disorders in the body. The course of chronic.
The diagnosis is based on the clinical picture, the morphology of the fungus microscopic examination of caustic alkalis and culture on the environment Saburo.
The forecast. When surface trihofitii treatment leads to the elimination of all forms of Mycobacterium; when suppurative trihofitii in advanced cases develop scars, persistent baldness.
Treatment. In trihofitii smooth skin in the morning to grease 2-5% alcoholic iodine solution, in the evening, RUB the ointment of Wilkinson, 10% sulfur-tar, etc. for 10 - 12 days. In infiltrative-suppurative trihofitii lotions from the liquid Burova (1 table spoon on 1 glass of water), to open ulcers and oral rinse with a solution of potassium permanganate, hair lesions removed with tweezers (see Epilation), further lesions grease with tincture of iodine and rubbed sulfur-tar ointment.
With the defeat of the scalp treatment in the specialized hospital, appoint griseofulvin to 0,125 g 4-6 times a day (within 15-20 days), then a day before the full effect (on average 1-1 .5 months); children - at the rate of 20-22 mg per 1 kg of weight. If contraindications to the use grizeofulvina - 4% aelenei the patch (see) followed by the application of sulfur-tar ointments and 2-3% tincture of iodine. In rare cases, radiotherapy. When treating chronic be accompanied trihofitii use a mixture of: Ac. salicylici - 6 g, Ac. lactici - 3 g, Vaselini - 91 g, and waxing lanugo hair in the affected areas; further 2% tincture of iodine and 10% sulfur-tar ointment externally to full effect.
Treatment for nail - see Onychomycosis.
Prevention: timely and thorough treatment of patients, the examination of all family members of the patient, examinations of children and staff at children's collectives, isolation and treatment of all patients; current and final disinfection in the pockets of mycosis (see Disinfection, ringworm). Control over the work of hairdressing. The sanitary-veterinary measures to combat fungal infections of cattle. Sanitary-educational work.
In children's groups had been ill children can be allowed after three negative tests for fungi.