The path between two abysses

Will try to summarize all, as discussed in other chapters.
Especially once we pay tribute to our two teachers, the creators of great physiological schools that are so greatly deepened the understanding of how sustain life organisms. Note: both schools perfectly fit, complementing and enriching one another. Slim doctrine of interoceptive created Century N. Chernigov, explains how the nervous system controls all life processes and obtain information from them. Countless experiments M, Udalova demonstrate the transition interoceptive effects into its opposite, shows how the amount of energy nerve impulses, changing, qualitatively converts the response body-effector in diametrically opposite. Ultimately both schools are extremely clarify the physiological mechanisms of maintaining homeostasis constancy of various parameters of inner environment of the organism, about which the first spoke Claude Bernard. Remind: Bernard called internal environment set circulating in the body fluids (blood, tissue fluid and lymph).
The constancy of the internal environment for Bernard was not an absolute, and some range, within which the possibility of a normal life. Beyond this range leads to illness or death.
We homeostasis seems to be more complicated than is considered normal. So the cytoplasm of all the different cells, in our opinion, is not only one of the domestic media, but in General the object, on stabilization of whom work of all homeostatic mechanisms. Here we talk about the cytoplasm as conditionally homogeneous substance, though actually things are not that simple, but this is not directly related to the circulatory system, which is devoted to the book. Note that the human body consists of 6·1013 cells (the number of visible to the naked eye stars - only 3·103 - 6·103). Capillaries we have 1.5·1011, and each serves an average of about 400 cells. Cells with intensive exchange (for example, muscle, nerve cells of the thyroid gland), endowed with personal capillary or two. The number of cells determines the amount of the body. It is also known that the vessels are divided into two every 5,6 diameter, and therefore, the diameter of the aorta specifies in advance the number of capillaries and hence cells. It is enough to encode in the chromosomes caliber aorta and body size will be determined as a result.
Semi-permeable membrane of the cell is active, it may lower or raise your anxiety. It selectively ignores some of the substance inside the cell, and the others - only to the outside. This provides the constancy of the internal environment that is very different from the outside. Without this, the contents of the cells in composition has equalized with the environment and would come entropy death. According to some, the change of permeability that affect metabolism, flows on to the "law of the camel," and therefore in different tissues traced the same pattern. Thus, we can consider the membrane as a regulator, responding to signals from outside and inside cells. Blood in the aorta and the arteries of the most constant composition, pressure and temperature. Venous blood, lymph and intercellular fluid less stable.
Permanence of cytoplasm can be considered the first stage of the whole integrated homeostasis internal environment of the organism.
The second stage (homeostasis II) applies to all circulating environments, consider them sequentially. In the circulatory system in the course of the flow of fluids fluctuations in their chemical composition and physical parameters in the comparatively high, if to take the level of arterial blood as a reference. Part of blood from the aorta (and a lot) is adjudged to be in the kidneys, where it is released from nitrogen products and loses a lot of water and chlorides. Buds, however, have the device for reabsorbtion (reverse suction) chloride and water. Purified from nitrogenous products of protein metabolism blood gets into the inferior Vena cava. Thus, for one circuit is not all blood is purified in the kidneys, much of it gets into the capillaries of other organs and tissues, where oxygen and carbon dioxide under the laws of the gas diffusion penetrate: the first - in intercellular fluid, the second of her blood. Different nutrients from blood plasma out of the capillary at the beginning, and tissue metabolites with intercellular fluid included in venous part of the capillary through his wall. As a result, formed venous oxygen-depleted blood and nutrients, but saturated with carbon dioxide and other waste from the cells. Part of interstitial fluid into the lymphatic capillaries is now lymph, which through the lymphatic breast stream flows in a dark corner of the collarbone, and enters the top Vena cava. Passing on the way through the lymph nodes, lymph restores the immune properties. Here it includes the lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell), gamma globulins, and other substances. In the lymph power is supplied and the milky fluid, rich in fats,- from the milky vessels originating from the villi of the small intestine.

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