Work - appropriate human activities, which, acting on the nature and changing it, man creates value in use. Work is a process that takes place between man and nature, a process in which people with his own activity mediates, regulates and controls the exchange of substances between himself and nature" (Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, so 23, S. 188). Labour is a social category, which is inextricably linked with human society.
As a result of work of many generations of people for thousands of years created and accumulated in the human society enormous material and cultural values.
The work cannot be considered as freestories category; it is a product of historical conditions, therefore all questions connected with work, it is necessary to consider only natural close ties with the concrete social-historical conditions.
The division of labour on the mental and physical - social phenomenon, caused by the division of society into classes. As you progress of construction of communism differences between physical and mental work is vanishing.
Work, however, the biological category. He is the first and basic condition of human existence, playing a crucial role in the process of formation and evolution of man. "Labour has created the man" (F. Engels). Work stimulated the division of functions between his hands and feet, the development of human hands and sense organs, the formation of the human brain with its capacity for abstract thinking. In the process of work a man can change his own nature, which is developed and improved as further development of production. In the nature there are no obstacles for a combination of mental and physical labor.
All class antagonistic social-economic formations work of the person subjected to severe exploitation. Its highest limit exploitation reaches under capitalism: it disfigures and harm people spiritually and physically.
Socialist relations of production have led to fundamental changes in the nature of work; he is free from exploitation, labour has ceased to be a commodity, the workers, the owner of the means of production, work for the company, i.e. on themselves. From this, comes the labor enthusiasm and various forms of socialist competition.
Technological progress associated with mechanization and automation of labor-intensive and harmful to health work under socialism, promotes radical improvement of working conditions (see Occupational hazards), the incidence rate (see Occupational diseasesand injuries (see), as the work is not based on the extraction of the maximum profit, and on the consideration of physiological abilities, possibilities of working and hygienic requirements to production.
Communist society based on highly organized production and advanced technology changes the nature of work, is the organic compound mental and physical labor in production activity.
Mechanization and automation of production processes make significant changes in the content of work and the organization of production. Growing importance of the profession of mental labour, including the profession of management. Monitoring production processes requires high qualification of employees. Work becomes more responsible social action.
Health studies the impact of working conditions on health of workers and develops sanitary-and-hygienic and treatment-and-prophylactic measures aimed at creation of favorable working conditions and increase productivity.
Health activities at enterprises in the USSR carried out systematically on the basis of the latest achievements of science and technology, on the basis of the most progressive labour legislation.
Soviet labor legislation provides for the 7-hour day and for many professions shortened working day; are governed by the rules and norms of maintenance and industrial enterprises. All enterprises and institutions shall take the necessary measures to create favorable working conditions and prevention of occupational diseases and accidents. Developed hygienic norms and requirements for industrial hygiene and safety, mandatory for all departments.
New enterprises and production processes are being built to meet all requirements of health.
Soviet labour legislation specifically provides for a wide range of special measures for the protection of women's work (see Protection of motherhood and childhood and adolescents. According to "the Basics of legislation of the USSR and Union republics on labour" is not allowed the recruitment of persons under the age of 16. It is prohibited to adolescent labour in jobs with harmful working conditions. All young people admitted to work only after a preliminary medical examination; further medical tests are performed annually. Wages and adolescents with reduced working day shall be paid in full.
Great importance of scientific labor organization (NOTES). Physiology, psychology and health at work is an integral part of the NOTES; without their requirements cannot be ensured high performance, monotonically, healthy work.

  • Physiology of labour