Employment of patients and disabled people in the USSR - the system of state and public activities aimed at the attraction to socially useful work of persons with reduced capacity for work without harm to their health.
Rational employment contributes to the restoration of working ability of patients and the disabled.
Employment patients in need of favourable conditions of work or a career change, is carried out in accordance with the conclusions of medical advice or medical labor expert Commission, whose decisions are obligatory for the heads of enterprises, institutions, organizations, state and collective farms. The validity, relevance and accuracy of the labour recommendations are an important condition for successful solution of all problems of employment (see Examination).
There are various forms of employment for the disabled. This takes into account such factors disability, as the degree of loss (or restrictions) disability and dysfunction, as well as the nature of the disease. In all cases, when possible, it is necessary to keep the profession, working environment, etc.
The disabled of group III are shown on the health status of work in the first place is given to those enterprises, in institutions where they worked before the onset of disability, i.e. in a normal production conditions. In these cases, using the previous experience, skills, professional knowledge. Rational employment with disability group III is to change the mode of work and rest, the adaptation of the equipment to functionality disabled, special organization of the workplace, the supply of workers with prostheses and devices.
In some cases, persons in need of special kinds of work are sent to specialized enterprises for the disabled.
One of the forms of employment of invalids of II group from tuberculosis, cardiovascular and nervous and mental diseases is creation of special workshops, organized on the basis of specialized enterprises or enterprises conventional type. In these workshops provided not only the creation of specific and most favourable for people with disabilities of working conditions, but also their professional training.
Promising form of employment for the disabled of the II and I, groups of home-based activities. The problem of organization of work of persons with disabilities in this case decide specialized enterprises and enterprises of local industry and consumer services.
In the Russian Federation and other republics there are societies of the blind and deaf, with a network of training and production enterprises. These enterprises are the base for professional training (retraining) and employment of disabled persons of II and I, groups due to diseases of the organs of sight and hearing. Working in specialized enterprises provide additional benefits (limited quotas, reduced working hours, additional paid holidays and others). For working set constant medical supervision.
In the General plan of social and labour rehabilitation of private employment issues are being addressed through the provision of the disabled with prosthesis and orthopedic products, motorcycles and velocissimi, cars with manual control, and so on (see Rehabilitation).