Trypanosomosis is a disease of humans and animals caused by flagellates protozoabelonging to the Trypanosomatidae family. There are African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) and American trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease).
The trypanosomes, isolated from the blood, is moving, light, wriggling formations oblong or irregular in length from 10-20 to 60 - 70 MK.
In the study of drugs, painted by the method Romanovsky - Himsi, cytoplasm seems pale blue, the kernel in red.
Trypanosomiasis - vector-borne disease with severe natural focality. The source of infection is a sick person, parasitological, and possibly some forms of household (goats, pigs, dogs, cats) and wild (antelopes, armadillos, opossums, monkeys) animals. Transmitted infection insect vectors. When African trypanosomiasis the trypanosome is transmitted by the bite of the tsetse fly; American trypanosomiasis - bite trifonovich, or kissing, bedbugs. Human infection occurs mainly through the bite of insects containing parasites, or contact with infected feces bug on the mucous membrane of the eye, damaged skin. In addition, the possible transmission directly from person to person through blood transfusions, by eating contaminated with the blood of the patient syringes and needles. Well known is the role of mechanical vectors (flies, flies, mosquitoes). Trypanosomiasis is not found on the territory of the Soviet Union. Sleeping sickness is registered in several countries in southern and Eastern Africa. Foci of Chagas disease was detected in most countries in South America.
In the clinical course of the African trypanosomiasis characteristic temperature increase (periodically), skin rash, swollen lymph nodes, swollen and CNS (increasing drowsiness). For the American trypanosomiasis typically developing specific myocarditis and the defeat of the digestive tract.
Preventive measures include the identification, isolation and treatment of patients, mass chemoprophylaxis of the population, destruction of vectors. The purpose of chemoprophylaxis sleeping sickness applied intramuscularly 4% solution of pentamidine 0,004 g per 1 kg of body weight once in 6 months. Vector control is performed using insecticides (dieldrin, telodrin, DDT); recommended land clearing vegetation, and destruction of infected animals. Radical action when Chagas disease is to improve social and living conditions of the population (replacing primitive dwellings comfortable).