Hearing loss

Hearing loss is consistent reduction in hearing, causing difficulty in speech perception.
In children, hearing loss occurs most often as a consequence of acute and chronic otitis. The decrease in hearing stipulated in these cases persistent changes in the middle ear - probodeniem eardrum, scars, cicatrices, leading to impaired mobility of the eardrum and the chain auditory ossicles. The most dramatic decrease in hearing develops as a result of pathological processes in the inner ear and the auditory nerve; this is more frequently observed in infectious diseases (scarlet fever, measles, influenza). Sometimes hearing loss may be congenital, i.e. occurs as a result of violations of the development of the organ of hearing in the embryonic period. The reasons for such violations are the same as at deafness (see). Congenital hearing loss, a hearing loss that occurred in early childhood can lead to the violation of the speech development of the child. The degree and nature of speech failure in hard-hearing children different from lung disorders of the pronunciation of individual sounds of speech deep into the General underdevelopment of speech and depend on the degree of hearing loss, time of occurrence of hearing loss and conditions child development.
In occurrence of hearing loss in adults with substantial otosclerosis (see), prolonged exposure to industrial noise and vibration, intoxication domestic and industrial poisons (carbon monoxide, mercury, lead), circulatory disorders of the inner ear with atherosclerosis, age-related degenerative-atrophic changes in the inner ear, the auditory nerve, and the auditory centers of the brain cortex-related hearing loss, or presbyacusis). There are cases of persistent lowering of hearing in both adults and children after the use of some medicinal substances (quinine, streptomycin, neomycin, kanamycin).
Hearing loss can be expressed in different degrees. For practical purposes there are three degrees of hearing loss is mild, moderate and severe. For mild hearing loss attributed this decline hearing at which the whispered it varies within a 1-3 m, and spoken at a distance of more than 4 liters, With an average loss of hearing whispers perceived at a distance of less 1 m, and spoken at a distance of 2-4 m In severe hearing loss whispered speech does not vary even ear, speaking as it is perceived at a distance of less than 2 m
Treatment. Although hearing loss in hearing body are, as a rule, persistent changes, yet in some cases be able to improve hearing by conservative (blowing off the ear, pneumomassage eardrum, physical therapy, drugs strychnine, nicotinic acid, vitamin B1, an extract of aloe) and surgical treatment. Surgical methods most widely used are of operations on the stapes (see Otosclerosis). Substantial assistance with hearing loss has slukhoprotezirovaniia (see Hearing AIDS) and training of visual perception of speech (read lips). Children suffering from hearing loss, and problems with speech development, taught in special schools for the hearing impaired (hearing impaired) children.
Preventive measures are the same as for the prevention of deafness (see).
Peculiarities of language development in children with hearing loss. Hearing impaired children distinguish all the vowels, part of consonants and familiar words, spoken in a normal voice level. Depending on the degree of hearing loss, there is more or less limited vocabulary, followed by improper pronunciation. Hearing impaired child replaces some other words of similar meaning (instead of "cuts" says "knife", and so on), mixes the ringing sound to the deaf, hissing with whistling, hard to soft. In severe loss of hearing the words distorted beyond recognition. They are built of syllables, which are standing in the word under stress, such as "naughty" - scissors etc., In a letter to deaf pupils replace some letters other, pass the letters do not stand under stress, allow generic case and errors.
Early detection of hearing loss, special events, allowing the child to fully perceive the speech of others, create favorable conditions for development of speech. Special children's institutions - kindergartens and schools (boarding schools) have two sections: in the first study children, holding it with only minor shortcomings pronunciation; the second, the children with deep underdevelopment of speech. At downturn of hearing, accompanied by a small defects pronunciation and writing, the child can be taught in the public schools provided additional lessons on speech development.