Tooth extraction

Extraction of teeth - surgery tooth extraction.
Indications for removal of teeth: inflammation at the apex, especially multi-rooted teeth, resistant to treatment; odontogenic osteomyelitis of the jaws (subject to the removal of the cause tooth); destruction of a tooth crown, if you cannot use the root for prosthetics; tooth mobility of III degree with periodontitis; wrong position of third molars (wisdom teeth), with frequent inflammatory processes of the surrounding tissues (pericolosit); misplaced additional teeth. In some cases remove a tooth on the advice of a dentist-orthopedist for the manufacture of complete denture.
Milk teeth, even destroyed, should be retained until the eruption of the permanent. Removal of teeth is shown only when chronic recurrent odontogenic inflammations, and also if the milk teeth prevent the eruption of permanent.
Contraindications to the removal of teeth relative. These are diseases of the nervous system, decreased blood clotting, hemophilia. In these cases, the removal of teeth should be in a hospital with preliminary preparation of the patient for surgery.
Removal of teeth using a special set of tools, for each group of teeth in the upper and lower jaws are special tongs, elevators (see Dental tools).
Surgery tooth extraction consists of the following stages: 1) a mouth rinse with a solution of potassium permanganate and lubricating gums around tooth 1-2% alcoholic iodine solution; 2) conduct of anesthesia (see below), pain occurs, as a rule, in 15-20 minutes; 3) Department of gum from the neck of the tooth and Ironing Board; 4) forceps delivery, prodvijenie their cheeks to the edges of the wells and their fixation; 5) the dislocation of the tooth slowly oscillating or rotating movements depending on the structure of the roots; 6) tooth extraction from wells (traction); 7) treatment of wounds, audit it and scraping sharp spoon to remove bone fragments, granulation tissue.
Before removing teeth advisable to do an x-ray to determine the structure of the roots, especially wisdom teeth and additional, delete, which usually represents a significant challenge.
Baby teeth are removed by special forceps, observing special care, without deep promote forceps, not to damage the beginnings of permanent teeth.
Anesthesia. When you remove the teeth usually used intraoral ways infiltration and block anesthesia 1-2% solution novokaina with the addition of a single drop of adrenaline (1 : 1000) 2 ml. Infiltration anesthesia is used on the upper jaw for all teeth, and at the bottom - the incisors, canines and premolars. The needle must be run under an angle of 30 to 40 degrees in the mucous membrane of atrium of mouth cavity near the tops of the teeth to the bevel needle was converted to the bone; impose additional novocaine in the mucous membrane, respectively, with palatal side or speaking. Conduction anesthesia is used with extensive interventions on jaws, as well as the removal of teeth in the lower jaw (molars).
On the upper jaw use the following types of anesthesia: 1) tuberaria anesthesia painkiller three molar, mucous membrane, as well as the outer and the rear wall of the maxillary sinus. The needle is injected in transitional fold of atrium of mouth cavity on the second upper molar, promote inwards and upwards of 1.5-2 cm on the bones are continuously entering the solution to avoid injuries wing-palatal venous plexus; 2) infraorbital anesthesia painkiller region incisors, canines, premolars; the needle is injected into the mucous membrane of the transition folds between the first and second cutter; gradually implementing the solution novokaina, to promote the entrance of the infraorbital hole, then give the channel and produce 0.5 ml; 3) palatially anesthesia painkiller soft tissues of half of the hard palate to the level of the canine; the needle is injected into the mucous membrane of the hard palate about the second molar, found the entrance to the Grand palatal hole and impose 0.5 ml solution novokaina; 4) cutting anesthesia relieve the front part of the palate; injected the needle vertically in the region cutting papilla and promote in cutting channel.
On the lower jaw apply mandibular anesthesia by which the corresponding half numbed mucosa, half of the floor of mouth, part of the language, the alveolar bone and all his teeth. The needle is injected in the outer part kryloviana-jaw fold 1 cm above the chewing surfaces of the lower molar (syringe is located across the mouth); at a depth of 0.7 cm impose 0.5 ml solution novokaina to turn off the lingual nerve, and at the depth of 2-2,5 cm else 2 ml for off signalvaluerole nerve; optionally enter a solution to transitional fold of mucous membrane on the part of atrium of mouth cavity in the field of the removed tooth.
The wound after the removal of teeth in the normal course of epithelialized 12-14 days.

  • Complications of dental extractions