Hydrocarbons are compounds of carbon and hydrogen that do not contain other elements.
There are plenty of hydrocarbons of different composition and structure, in particular aromatic hydrocarbons (see). The composition of hydrocarbons expressed General formula CnHm.
Hydrocarbons are formed by the decay of plants and animal remains. Use hydrocarbons as fuel and as a source products for synthesis of various substances.
The main sources of hydrocarbons are natural gas and oil. Part of the natural basin are mainly hydrocarbons with small molecular weight. The composition of crude oil includes a variety of hydrocarbons having a higher molecular weight than hydrocarbons natural gas. Hydrocarbons, especially cyclic also receive the dry distillation of coal and oil shale.
Due to the diversity of products containing hydrocarbons, and the conditions under which they can be formed anew, hydrocarbons can play the role of privredna in almost all branches of industry: in the extraction of natural gas and liquid fuels (gas, oil industry), by refining and from the products (oil refining and petrochemical industry), when using the products of thermal processing of stone and brown coal, oil shale, peat, oil, etc. for a variety of purposes (e.g. as a fuel for cars, tractors, airplanes, and so on, as solvents in many industries, as mineral oils and others). Hydrocarbons can play a role and household poisons: when Smoking tobacco (polyaromatic), when used as solvents in households (for example, when cleaning service in small rooms), in case of accidental poisoning, mainly children, liquid mixture of hydrocarbons (gasoline, kerosene, and so on) and in other cases.
Privrzenost different hydrocarbons are determined by the power of their drug's actions and the presence of some specific toxic effects. Most expressed it in aromatic hydrocarbons.
The risk of occupational poisoning hydrocarbons is determined largely by their volatility.
Hydrocarbons fatty number, containing up to 5 atoms of carbon in a molecule (methane, ethane, propane, butane, pentane) and represents at normal temperature and pressure gaseous substances that may be contained in the air at any concentration, and could lead in some cases to a lack of oxygen in the air (for example, accumulation of methane in coal mines , and others) and to the bombings. Saturated hydrocarbons containing 6 to 9 atoms of carbon in a molecule (hexane, heptane, octane, Nanan),liquid substances in the composition of gasoline, kerosene. They are widely used as solvents and thinners adhesives, varnishes, paints, and as a degreasing agent and can create a high concentration of vapours in the premises (rubber, paint, mechanical engineering and other industries).
Heavy hydrocarbons with 10 or more carbon atoms in the molecule (oil and mineral oil, paraffin, naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene, bitumen, pitches and other) have low volatility, but cause certain lesions in chronic effect on skin and mucous membranes, as well as providing General toxic effect. So, when working with most of lubricating fluids (resol, sulfofrezol and others) and manufactured on their basis the emulsion are considered and emulsions (metal processing by cutting and others) can develop oil folliculitis.
In this regard, the main preventive measures at enterprises, receiving and using hydrocarbons aimed at the prevention and elimination of air pollution hydrocarbon gas and effects on the skin of liquid hydrocarbons. So, for example, produce steam and intensive aeration tanks (tank compartments, tankers and other)used for the transport of oil and fuel gas, when cleaning these tanks before the new loading. When using cutting oils, kerosene and gasoline in the machine-building industry production premises are provided with local exhaust ventilation to trap oil and kerosene fog in places of its education and General exchange ventilation. Refineries ensure the integrity of the equipment, all kinds of communications, valves, flanged joints, application of bassalygoa pumps. In rubber, footwear and paint industry, where are widely used gasoline as solvents and thinners, provides for the device cover and mechanical exhaust ventilation from certain types of equipment, including faucets, and General ventilation of premises.
In industries where are widely used in oil and mineral oils and emulsions (machine-building industry), oil products (oil-refining industry, in particular when the cracking processes), sanitary facilities are equipped with showers and wash basins with warm water, and the workers that come into contact with harmful products, supplied with protective clothing and protective ointments. Working with liquid hydrocarbons aromatic series (benzene, toluene, xylene) should be within the established terms periodically to medical examinations.
Maximum allowable concentrations of hydrocarbons in the air (in terms of carbon) are 300 mg/m3, and for vapor fuel gasoline - 100 mg/m3. Cm. the industrial Poisons.