Coal industry

Coal industry - the industry for the extraction of coal from its deposits in the earth's crust. There are two methods of coal production: closed ( mines) and outdoor (in mines, quarries).
The main work in the mines, are: a cut of the reservoir through a coal-cutter, blasting coal with explosives, pneumatic jackhammers, harvesters, "mechanized" complexes or hydraulically. Of love, the coal is transported by conveyors to the haulage drift and electric locomotives delivered to the trunk to issue to the surface.
In the sections of the coal seam is loosened drilling and blasting method, coal is loaded on the trucks and transported to the surface.
Leading the profession in underground work: drifters, drillers, blasters, navrotskii, mine timber, operators of harvesters and coal-cutter. Most of the mines they are United in an integrated team with a wide interchangeability. Leading the profession in quarries - drillers, blasters, machinists excavators and electric locomotives, drivers bulldozers and dump trucks.
Occupational hazards in the coal industry: unfavorable weather conditions, the emission of dust (see) and harmful gases, noise (see), vibration (see), pelagophilic thin seam forced body position, in gidrosektor the risk of eye injury (hydromonitoring).
Almost all coal mines contains methane, nitrogen, okis carbon, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.
Dust in the air mines and cuts consists of coal and rock particles. The content of mineral substances in it ranges from 15 to 40%, free silicon dioxide - from 1 to 10%. According to the Sanitary norms SN 245-71 maximum permissible concentration of coal dust in the air openings must not exceed 10 mg/m3 - for the content in coal free silicon dioxide to 2% and 4 mg/m3 - for the content of its more than 2%. However, dustiness of air often exceeds this value many times, especially when working harvesters. To reduce the dust in coal mining are applied: 1) the water is injected into the coal seam prior to dredging of coal; 2) spray irrigation water the largest dust; 3) dry dedusting from places in the conditions of coal special devices combine or "the mechanized complex".
Industrial injuries is always higher in the working face of the group. The most frequent causes - violation of rules of safety at conducting mountain works and transportation of coal.
Occupational disease: silicosis, silicates, anthracosilicosis (see Pneumoconiosis); observed in the workers of breed and coal mines with work experience on average 15-20 years. Bursitis (see) have running on the gently falling reservoirs, vibration disease - drivers harvesters working in mines with steep seams and drillers.
Pustular skin diseases and respiratory diseases, myositis, neuritis, radiculitis occur more frequently in working in cold damp face when working in an uncomfortable position and great physical strain.
Health activities. Reduce dust; heating of the air supplied to the mine in the cold period of the year; elimination of leakage and accumulation of water in the places of stay and movement of workers; the device in unloading the courts heated cameras for miners, waiting to rise; the device of rational metkombinatov with dressing rooms, showers, installations for the storage, dedusting, drying, washing and repairing clothes, daily hygiene microtraumas, wash shoes, ultraviolet irradiation of the workers. In coal mines - mobile heated rooms for heating workers in the cold season, insulation of cabins excavators, bulldozers and dump trucks, timely delivery of the necessary clothes and shoes.
Prevention of occupational diseases in the coal industry introduced mandatory pre-employment and periodic medical examinations. Working on the tunneling and wastewater treatment works undergo medical examination once every 12 months, the remaining workers of the mines - 1 every 24 months. There is a wide network of dispensaries, equipped with the necessary instruments and equipment for physiotherapy, therapeutic exercises, diet.
Recently promoted the so-called integrated mechanization of coal extraction, based on the use of powerful coal combines, metal shields and mechanized roof supports, which will allow to switch to remote control units.