Since 1963 the USSR (GOST 9867-61 "international system of units) with the purpose of unification of units of measurement in all areas of science and technology recommended for practical use of the international system of units (SI, SI) is a system of units of physical quantities, adopted by the eleventh General conference on weights and measures in 1960 in the basis of its form 6 basic units (length, mass, time, force of the electric current thermodynamic temperature and the power of light), and 2 additional units (plane angle solid angle); all other units, in the table, are their derivatives. The adoption of a uniform for all countries in the international system of units is designed to eliminate the difficulties associated with the translation of the numerical values of physical quantities, as well as various constants of any one, the current system (GHS, MCGS, ISS And etc), to another.

Name of values | Unit of measure value in SI units | Designation | |
---|---|---|---|

Russian | international | ||

I. Length, mass, volume, pressure, temperature |
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Length |
M - a measure of length, numerically equal to the length of the international standard m; 1 m=100 cm (1·10 |
m | m |

Cm = 0.01 m (1·10^{-2}m)=10 mm |
cm | cm | |

Mm = 0.001 m(1·10^{-3} m) = 0.1 cm=1000 MK (1·10^{3} MK) |
mm | mm | |

Microns (micrometers) = 0.001 mm (1·10^{-3}mm) = 0, 0001 cm (1·10 ^{-4}cm)= 10 000 |
MK | m | |

Angstrem=one ten-billionth of a meter (1·10^{-10} m) or one hundred-million centimeters (1 x 10^{-8} cm) |
+ | + | |

Weight | Kilogram - the basic unit of mass in the metric system of measures and the SI system, numerically equal to the mass of the international prototype kilogram; 1 kg=1000 g |
kg | kg |

Gram=0.001 kg (1·10^{-3}kg) |
g | g | |

Ton= 1000 kg (1·10^{3} kg) |
t | t | |

Centner=100 kg (1·10^{2} kg) |
C | ||

Carat is the common unit of mass, numerically equal to 0.2 g | ct | ||

Gamma=one millionth of a gram (1·10^{-6} g) |
γ | ||

Volume | Liter=1,000028 DM |
l | l |

Pressure | Physical or normal atmosphere pressure, balance the mercury column of height of 760 mm at temperature 0 OC= 1,033 at= = 1,01·10^{-5}n/m^{2}=1,01325 bar= 760 Torr= 1, 033 kgf/cm^{2} |
ATM | atm |

Technical atmosphere pressure, equal to 1 kgf/] = 9,81·10^{4} n/m^{2}=0,980655 bar =0,980655·10^{6} Dyne/cm^{2} = 0, 968 ATM= 735 tor |
at | at | |

Mm Hg= 133,32 n/m^{2} |
mm RT. Art. | mm Hg | |

Top - name-of-system unit of pressure, equal to 1 mm RT. Art.; given in honor of the Italian scientist E. Torricelli | tor | ||

Bar - unit atmospheric pressure = 1·10^{5} n/m^{2}= 1·10^{6} Dyne/cm^{2} |
bar | bar | |

Pressure (sound) | Bar-unit sound pressure (acoustic): bar - 1 Dyne/cm^{2}; currently, as the unit of sound pressure recommended unit with a value of 1 n/m^{2} = 10 Dyne/cm^{2} |
bar | bar |

The logarithmic unit of measurement of the level of excessive sound pressure equal to 1/10 of a unit of measurement of gauge pressure - Bela | dB | db | |

Temperature | The degrees Celsius, the temperature in K (Kelvin), equal to the temperature in degrees C (the Celsius scale) + 273,15 ° | ° | ° |

II. Strength, power, energy, work, quantity of heat, viscosity | |||

Power | Dina is the unit of force in the GHS system(sm-g-s.), when the body with a mass of 1 g reported acceleration equal to 1 cm/sec^{2}; 1 DIN - 1·10^{-5} n |
Dean | dyn |

Kilogram-force, indicating to the body with a mass of 1 kg acceleration equal 9,81 m/s^{2}; 1kg=9,81 n=9,81·10^{5} DIN |
kg, kg | ||

Power | HP =735,5 W | HP | HP |

Energy | Electron-volt is the energy obtained by electron moving in an electric field in a vacuum between the points with a potential difference of 1 V; 1 EV= 1.6 x 10^{-19} J.. Use of multiple units: kiloelectron-volt (It)=10^{3}EV million electron volts (MeV)= 10^{6}EV. In modern accelerators of charged particles the particle energy is measured in Bev - billion (billion) EV; 1 BSV=10^{9 }EV |
EV | eV |

Erg=1·10^{-7} j; erg is also used as a unit of work that is numerically equal to the work done by the power of 1 Dean on the way to 1 cm |
erg | erg | |

Work | Kilogram-force meter (kilogrammes) - a unit of work that is numerically equal to the work done by a constant force in 1 kg when moving the point of application of this force over a distance of 1 m in her direction; KGM=9,81 j (simultaneously KGM is a measure of energy) | KGM, kgf·m | kGm |

The quantity of heat | A calorie is the common unit of measurement for the amount of heat equal to the amount of heat needed to heat 1 g of water from 19.5 C to 20,5 ° N 1 cal=4,187 j; common multiple of the unit kilocalorie (kcal kcal), equal to 1000 cal | cal | cal |

Viscosity (dynamic) | Poise is a unit of viscosity in the system of units GHS; viscosity, which stratified flow with velocity gradient equal to 1 sec^{-1} 1 cm^{2} surface layer, the force viscosity 1 DIN; 1 PZ = 0,1 n·s/m^{2} |
PZ | P |

Viscosity (kinematic) | Stokes is a unit of kinematic viscosity in the GHS system; equal viscosity of liquids having a density of 1 g/cm^{3}, resisting force in 1 DIN mutual movement of two layers of a liquid with an area of 1 cm^{2}at a distance of 1 cm one from another and moving relative to each other with the speed of 1 cm / sec |
article | St |

III. Magnetic flux, magnetic induction, magnetic field strength, the inductance and electric capacity | |||

Magnetic flux | Maxwell - a unit measuring magnetic flux in the system of GHS; 1 ISS is equal to the magnetic flux passing through the area in 1 cm^{2}, located perpendicular to the lines of magnetic field induction, induction, equal to 1 GS; 1 MS= 10^{-8} WB (Weber) - unit of magnetic current in the SI system |
ISS | Mx |

Magnetic induction | Gauss - unit in the system of GHS; 1 GS is the induction of such a field in which straightforward guide 1 cm long, located perpendicular to the vector field experiences a force in 1 Dean, if this guide is current in 3·10^{10} units GHS; 1 g=1·10^{-4} t (Tesla) |
GS | Gs |

The magnetic field strength | OE - a unit of magnetic field strength in the system of GHS; for one Oersted (1 e) adopted the tension in this point of the field in which 1 electromagnetic unit number of magnetism force 1 Dean (Dean); 1 e=1/4π·10 ^{3} a/m |
E. | Oe |

Inductance | Cm is the unit of inductance in the GHS system; 1 cm= 1·10^{-9} GN (Henry) |
cm | cm |

Electric capacity | Cm - unit capacity in the system of GHS = 1·10^{-12} f (parade) |
cm | cm |

IV. Force of light, a stream of light, brightness, illumination | |||

Force of light | Candle - a unit of luminous intensity, the Value of which is such that the full brightness of the emitter at a temperature of solidification of platinum was equal to 60 St 1 cm^{2} |
St. | cd |

Luminous flux | Lumen - a unit of luminous flux; 1 lumen (LM) is emitted within a solid angle in 1 erased point light source with in all directions, the power of the light in the 1 St | LM | lm |

Lumen-second - corresponds to the light energy generated a luminous flux of 1 LM, emitted or perceived per 1 sec | LM·s | lm·sec | |

Lumen-hour 3,600 lumen-seconds | LM·h | lm·h | |

Brightness | Still - unit of brightness in the GHS system; corresponds to the brightness of a flat surface, 1 cm^{2} which gives you a direction perpendicular to that surface, the light power, equal to 1 CE; sat 1=1·10^{4} HT (bat) (unit of brightness in the SI system) |
sat | sb |

Lambert is the common unit of brightness, a derivative of stillbe; 1 l=1/PI St= 3193 HT | |||

Apostilb= 1/PI St/m^{2} |
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Illumination | Fot - light units in the system SGSL (sm-g-s-LW; 1 fot corresponds surface luminance of 1 cm^{2} evenly distributed light output 1 LM; 1 f=1·10^{4} LX (Lux) |
f | ph |

V. the Intensity of radiation and dose | |||

The intensity of radioactivity | Curie - the basic unit of measurement of the intensity of radiation, Curie corresponding to 3.7·10^{10} decay in 1 sec. any radioactive isotope |
Curie | C or Cu |

millicurie= 10^{-3} Curie, or 3.7·10^{7} acts of radioactive decay in 1 sec. |
mkori | mc or mCu | |

microcurie= 10^{-6} Curie |
mccoury | mC or nCu | |

Dose | X - amount (dosage) of x or γ-rays, which in 0,001293 g of air (i.e., 1 cm^{3} of dry air at a temperature of 0 degrees and 760 mm RT. Art.) causes the formation of ions carrying one electrostatic unit of the amount of electricity each character; 1 R causes the formation of 2.08·10^{9} pairs of ions in 1 cm^{3} air |
R | r |

Milli-roentgen = 10^{-3}p |
Mr | mr | |

microroentgens = 10^{-6} p |
MCR | μr | |

Happy is the unit of absorbed dose of any of ionizing radiation equal glad 100 ergs per 1 g of irradiated environment; air ionization of x or g-rays 1 R equal 0,88 happy, and when ionization tissue almost 1 R is equal to 1 rad | glad | rad | |

REM (roentgen equivalent) - the amount (dosage) of any kind of ionizing radiation, causing the same biological effect as of 1 p (or 1 rad) hard x-rays. Different biological effects at equal ionization of different types of radiation led to the need to introduce another concept: the relative biological effectiveness of the radiation-RBE; dose (L) and a dimensionless coefficient (RBE) is expressed as D_{REM}=D_{glad}·RBE, where RBE=1 for x -, gamma rays and β-rays and RBE=10 for protons up to 10 MeV fast neutrons and α-chaSTIC natural (on the recommendation of the International Congress of radiologists in Copenhagen, 1953) |
REM, EW | rem |

Note. Multiples and Dolny units, except for units of time and angle, formed by multiplying them by appropriate powers of 10, and their names attached to the names of units of measure. Never use two consoles to the entity's name. For example, you cannot write millimetrovie (mkwt) or microstructured (MMF), you must write NW (NRT) or PF (PF). You should not use prefixes for names such units, which represent a multiple or fraction of a unit (for example, micron). To Express the duration of processes and designations of calendar dates of the event allowed the use of multiple units of time.

### The most important units of the international system of units (SI)

**Main unit**

(length, mass, temperature, time, strength of an electric current, the power light)

Name of values | Units; their definition | Designation | |
---|---|---|---|

Russian | international | ||

Length |
Meter - length equal 1650763,73 wavelength radiation in the vacuum corresponding to the transition between levels 2P |
m | m |

Weight | The kilogram is the mass corresponding to the mass of the international prototype kilogram | kg | kg |

Time | Second - 1/31556925,9747 of the tropical year (1900) ** | sec | S, S |

Power of electric current | Ampere - power unchanging current, which passes through two parallel straight conductors of infinite length, and a negligible circular cross-section located at the distance of 1 m from one another in a vacuum, would produce between conductors force equal to 2·10^{-7} h for every meter of the length |
and | A |

Force of light | Candle - a unit of luminous intensity, the value of which is such that the brightness of the full (absolute black) emitter at a temperature of solidification of platinum was equal to 60 CE 1 cm^{2} *** |
St. | cd |

Temperature (thermodynamic) | Degrees Kelvin (Kelvin) - a unit of measurement temperature thermodynamic temperature scale in which the temperature of the triple point of water**** set is 273.16 K | K | °K |

** I.e. second is a specific part of a time interval between two successive transits of the Earth in orbit around the Sun of the point corresponding to the spring equinox. This gives more precision in the definition of a second than defining it as a part of the day, because the duration of the day.

*** I.e. per unit adopted luminous intensity of a specific reference source that emits light at a temperature of melting of platinum. The previous international standard candles is 1,005 new standard candles. Thus, within the usual practical accuracy of their values can be considered a match.

**** Triple point is the temperature of ice melting in the presence of over him saturated water vapor.

### Additional and derived units

Name of values | Units; their definition | Designation | |
---|---|---|---|

Russian | international | ||

I. plane angle solid angle, power, work, energy, the quantity of heat power | |||

Flat angle | Radian angle between two radii of a circle, the clip on the circle glad arc, the length of which is equal to the radius | glad | rad |

The solid angle | Steradian - solid angle whose peak is situated in the center of the sphere erased and that cut on the surface of the sphere the area equal to the area of a square with sides equal to the radius of the sphere | erased | sr |

Power | Newton is the force, under the action which the body with a mass of 1 kg acquires an acceleration of 1 m/s^{2} |
n | N |

Work energy quantity of heat | Joule - work, which makes acting on a body constant force in 1 n on the way to 1 m, covered by the body in the direction of the force | J. | J |

Power | Watt - power of over 1 sec. is performed the work in 1 j | W | W |

II. The amount of electricity, voltage, electric resistance, electrical capacity | |||

The amount of electricity, the electric charge | Pendant - the amount of electricity flowing through the cross-section for 1 sec. when power DC to 1 and | to | C |

Voltage, electric potential difference, an electromotive force (EMF) | Voltage - the voltage at the phase electrical circuit, when passing through that amount of electricity in 1, work is done in 1 j | in | V |

Electrical resistance | Om - conductor resistance, which at a constant voltage at the ends in 1 in undergoes constant current of 1 a | om | Ω |

Electric capacity | Farada - the capacitor, the voltage between the plates which changes to 1 when charging the amount of electricity in 1 to | f | F |

III. Magnetic induction, the flow of the magnetic induction, inductance, frequency | |||

Magnetic induction | Tesla - induction of a uniform magnetic field, which to plot a straight conductor of length 1 m, placed perpendicular to the direction of the field, acts with the power of 1 h at passage through the conductor DC to 1 and | TL | T |

The flow of magnetic induction | Weber - magnetic flux generated by a homogeneous magnetic field induction in 1 of THB through the area in 1 m^{2}perpendicular to the direction of the magnetic induction vector |
WB | Wb |

Inductance | Henry - inductance Explorer (coil), which Indochinese EMF into 1 in the current change it to 1 and 1 second. | Mr. | H |

Frequency | Hertz frequency of the periodic process, which for 1 sec. takes one oscillation (cycle, period) | Hz | Hz |

IV. Luminous flux of light energy, brightness, illumination | |||

Luminous flux | Lumen - luminous flux, which gives the inside solid angle in 1 erased point light source in the 1 St, radiates equally in all directions | LM | lm |

The light energy | Lumen-second | LM·s | lm·s |

Brightness | Neath Arnost glowing plane, each square meter which gives you a direction, perpendicular to the plane, the power of the light in the 1 St | HT | nt |

Illumination | Deluxe illumination created a luminous flux of 1 LM uniform distribution on the area of 1 m^{2} |
LK | lx |

The amount of lighting | Suite-second | Luke·s | lx·s |