# Unit of measure

Since 1963 the USSR (GOST 9867-61 "international system of units) with the purpose of unification of units of measurement in all areas of science and technology recommended for practical use of the international system of units (SI, SI) is a system of units of physical quantities, adopted by the eleventh General conference on weights and measures in 1960 in the basis of its form 6 basic units (length, mass, time, force of the electric current thermodynamic temperature and the power of light), and 2 additional units (plane angle solid angle); all other units, in the table, are their derivatives. The adoption of a uniform for all countries in the international system of units is designed to eliminate the difficulties associated with the translation of the numerical values of physical quantities, as well as various constants of any one, the current system (GHS, MCGS, ISS And etc), to another.

Name of values Unit of measure value in SI units Designation
Russian international
I. Length, mass, volume, pressure, temperature

Length

M - a measure of length, numerically equal to the length of the international standard m; 1 m=100 cm (1·102 cm)=1000 mm (1·103 mm)

m m
Cm = 0.01 m (1·10-2m)=10 mm cm cm
Mm = 0.001 m(1·10-3 m) = 0.1 cm=1000 MK (1·103 MK) mm mm
Microns (micrometers) = 0.001 mm (1·10-3mm) =
0, 0001 cm (1·10-4cm)= 10 000
MK m
Angstrem=one ten-billionth of a meter (1·10-10 m) or one hundred-million centimeters (1 x 10-8 cm) + +
Weight Kilogram - the basic unit of mass in the metric system of measures and the SI system, numerically equal to the mass of the international prototype kilogram; 1 kg=1000 g
kg kg
Gram=0.001 kg (1·10-3kg)
g g
Ton= 1000 kg (1·103 kg) t t
Centner=100 kg (1·102 kg)
C
Carat is the common unit of mass, numerically equal to 0.2 g   ct
Gamma=one millionth of a gram (1·10-6 g)   γ
Volume

Liter=1,000028 DM3= 1,000028·10-3 m3

l l
Pressure Physical or normal atmosphere pressure, balance the mercury column of height of 760 mm at temperature 0 OC= 1,033 at= = 1,01·10-5n/m2=1,01325 bar= 760 Torr= 1, 033 kgf/cm2
ATM atm
Technical atmosphere pressure, equal to 1 kgf/] = 9,81·104 n/m2=0,980655 bar =0,980655·106 Dyne/cm2 = 0, 968 ATM= 735 tor at at
Mm Hg= 133,32 n/m2 mm RT. Art. mm Hg
Top - name-of-system unit of pressure, equal to 1 mm RT. Art.; given in honor of the Italian scientist E. Torricelli tor
Bar - unit atmospheric pressure = 1·105 n/m2= 1·106 Dyne/cm2 bar bar
Pressure (sound) Bar-unit sound pressure (acoustic): bar - 1 Dyne/cm2; currently, as the unit of sound pressure recommended unit with a value of 1 n/m2 = 10 Dyne/cm2
bar bar
The logarithmic unit of measurement of the level of excessive sound pressure equal to 1/10 of a unit of measurement of gauge pressure - Bela dB db
Temperature The degrees Celsius, the temperature in K (Kelvin), equal to the temperature in degrees C (the Celsius scale) + 273,15 ° ° °
II. Strength, power, energy, work, quantity of heat, viscosity
Power Dina is the unit of force in the GHS system(sm-g-s.), when the body with a mass of 1 g reported acceleration equal to 1 cm/sec2; 1 DIN - 1·10-5 n Dean dyn
Kilogram-force, indicating to the body with a mass of 1 kg acceleration equal 9,81 m/s2; 1kg=9,81 n=9,81·105 DIN kg, kg
Power HP =735,5 W HP HP
Energy Electron-volt is the energy obtained by electron moving in an electric field in a vacuum between the points with a potential difference of 1 V; 1 EV= 1.6 x 10-19 J.. Use of multiple units: kiloelectron-volt (It)=103EV million electron volts (MeV)= 106EV. In modern accelerators of charged particles the particle energy is measured in Bev - billion (billion) EV; 1 BSV=109 EV
EV eV
Erg=1·10-7 j; erg is also used as a unit of work that is numerically equal to the work done by the power of 1 Dean on the way to 1 cm erg erg
Work Kilogram-force meter (kilogrammes) - a unit of work that is numerically equal to the work done by a constant force in 1 kg when moving the point of application of this force over a distance of 1 m in her direction; KGM=9,81 j (simultaneously KGM is a measure of energy) KGM, kgf·m kGm
The quantity of heat A calorie is the common unit of measurement for the amount of heat equal to the amount of heat needed to heat 1 g of water from 19.5 C to 20,5 ° N 1 cal=4,187 j; common multiple of the unit kilocalorie (kcal kcal), equal to 1000 cal cal cal
Viscosity (dynamic) Poise is a unit of viscosity in the system of units GHS; viscosity, which stratified flow with velocity gradient equal to 1 sec-1 1 cm2 surface layer, the force viscosity 1 DIN; 1 PZ = 0,1 n·s/m2 PZ P
Viscosity (kinematic) Stokes is a unit of kinematic viscosity in the GHS system; equal viscosity of liquids having a density of 1 g/cm3, resisting force in 1 DIN mutual movement of two layers of a liquid with an area of 1 cm2at a distance of 1 cm one from another and moving relative to each other with the speed of 1 cm / sec article St
III. Magnetic flux, magnetic induction, magnetic field strength, the inductance and electric capacity
Magnetic flux Maxwell - a unit measuring magnetic flux in the system of GHS; 1 ISS is equal to the magnetic flux passing through the area in 1 cm2, located perpendicular to the lines of magnetic field induction, induction, equal to 1 GS; 1 MS= 10-8 WB (Weber) - unit of magnetic current in the SI system ISS Mx
Magnetic induction Gauss - unit in the system of GHS; 1 GS is the induction of such a field in which straightforward guide 1 cm long, located perpendicular to the vector field experiences a force in 1 Dean, if this guide is current in 3·1010 units GHS; 1 g=1·10-4 t (Tesla) GS Gs
The magnetic field strength OE - a unit of magnetic field strength in the system of GHS; for one Oersted (1 e) adopted the tension in this point of the field in which 1 electromagnetic unit number of magnetism force 1 Dean (Dean);
1 e=1/4π·103 a/m
E. Oe
Inductance Cm is the unit of inductance in the GHS system; 1 cm= 1·10-9 GN (Henry) cm cm
Electric capacity Cm - unit capacity in the system of GHS = 1·10-12 f (parade) cm cm
IV. Force of light, a stream of light, brightness, illumination
Force of light Candle - a unit of luminous intensity, the Value of which is such that the full brightness of the emitter at a temperature of solidification of platinum was equal to 60 St 1 cm2 St. cd
Luminous flux Lumen - a unit of luminous flux; 1 lumen (LM) is emitted within a solid angle in 1 erased point light source with in all directions, the power of the light in the 1 St LM lm
Lumen-second - corresponds to the light energy generated a luminous flux of 1 LM, emitted or perceived per 1 sec LM·s lm·sec
Lumen-hour 3,600 lumen-seconds LM·h lm·h
Brightness Still - unit of brightness in the GHS system; corresponds to the brightness of a flat surface, 1 cm2 which gives you a direction perpendicular to that surface, the light power, equal to 1 CE; sat 1=1·104 HT (bat) (unit of brightness in the SI system) sat sb
Lambert is the common unit of brightness, a derivative of stillbe; 1 l=1/PI St= 3193 HT
Apostilb= 1/PI St/m2
Illumination Fot - light units in the system SGSL (sm-g-s-LW; 1 fot corresponds surface luminance of 1 cm2 evenly distributed light output 1 LM; 1 f=1·104 LX (Lux) f ph
V. the Intensity of radiation and dose
The intensity of radioactivity Curie - the basic unit of measurement of the intensity of radiation, Curie corresponding to 3.7·1010 decay in 1 sec. any radioactive isotope
Curie C or Cu
millicurie= 10-3 Curie, or 3.7·107 acts of radioactive decay in 1 sec. mkori mc or mCu
microcurie= 10-6 Curie mccoury mC or nCu
Dose X - amount (dosage) of x or γ-rays, which in 0,001293 g of air (i.e., 1 cm3 of dry air at a temperature of 0 degrees and 760 mm RT. Art.) causes the formation of ions carrying one electrostatic unit of the amount of electricity each character; 1 R causes the formation of 2.08·109 pairs of ions in 1 cm3 air R r
Milli-roentgen = 10-3p Mr mr
microroentgens = 10-6 p MCR μr
Happy is the unit of absorbed dose of any of ionizing radiation equal glad 100 ergs per 1 g of irradiated environment; air ionization of x or g-rays 1 R equal 0,88 happy, and when ionization tissue almost 1 R is equal to 1 rad glad rad
REM (roentgen equivalent) - the amount (dosage) of any kind of ionizing radiation, causing the same biological effect as of 1 p (or 1 rad) hard x-rays. Different biological effects at equal ionization of different types of radiation led to the need to introduce another concept: the relative biological effectiveness of the radiation-RBE; dose (L) and a dimensionless coefficient (RBE) is expressed as DREM=Dglad·RBE, where RBE=1 for x -, gamma rays and β-rays and RBE=10 for protons up to 10 MeV fast neutrons and α-chaSTIC natural (on the recommendation of the International Congress of radiologists in Copenhagen, 1953) REM, EW rem

Note. Multiples and Dolny units, except for units of time and angle, formed by multiplying them by appropriate powers of 10, and their names attached to the names of units of measure. Never use two consoles to the entity's name. For example, you cannot write millimetrovie (mkwt) or microstructured (MMF), you must write NW (NRT) or PF (PF). You should not use prefixes for names such units, which represent a multiple or fraction of a unit (for example, micron). To Express the duration of processes and designations of calendar dates of the event allowed the use of multiple units of time.

### The most important units of the international system of units (SI)

Main unit
(length, mass, temperature, time, strength of an electric current, the power light)

Name of values Units; their definition Designation
Russian international

Length

Meter - length equal 1650763,73 wavelength radiation in the vacuum corresponding to the transition between levels 2P10 and 5d5 atom krypton 86 *

m m
Weight The kilogram is the mass corresponding to the mass of the international prototype kilogram kg kg
Time Second - 1/31556925,9747 of the tropical year (1900) ** sec S, S
Power of electric current Ampere - power unchanging current, which passes through two parallel straight conductors of infinite length, and a negligible circular cross-section located at the distance of 1 m from one another in a vacuum, would produce between conductors force equal to 2·10-7 h for every meter of the length and A
Force of light Candle - a unit of luminous intensity, the value of which is such that the brightness of the full (absolute black) emitter at a temperature of solidification of platinum was equal to 60 CE 1 cm2 *** St. cd
Temperature (thermodynamic) Degrees Kelvin (Kelvin) - a unit of measurement temperature thermodynamic temperature scale in which the temperature of the triple point of water**** set is 273.16 K K °K
* Ie metre equal to the specified number of waves of radiation with a wavelength 0,6057 MK obtained from a special lamp and its orange spectral lines of neutral gas krypton. Such a definition of the length unit allows you to play meter with the most accurate, and most importantly, in any laboratories with proper equipment. This eliminates the need for periodic tests of the standard meter, with its international standard stored in Paris.
** I.e. second is a specific part of a time interval between two successive transits of the Earth in orbit around the Sun of the point corresponding to the spring equinox. This gives more precision in the definition of a second than defining it as a part of the day, because the duration of the day.
*** I.e. per unit adopted luminous intensity of a specific reference source that emits light at a temperature of melting of platinum. The previous international standard candles is 1,005 new standard candles. Thus, within the usual practical accuracy of their values can be considered a match.
**** Triple point is the temperature of ice melting in the presence of over him saturated water vapor.

Name of values Units; their definition Designation
Russian international
I. plane angle solid angle, power, work, energy, the quantity of heat power
The solid angle Steradian - solid angle whose peak is situated in the center of the sphere erased and that cut on the surface of the sphere the area equal to the area of a square with sides equal to the radius of the sphere erased sr
Power Newton is the force, under the action which the body with a mass of 1 kg acquires an acceleration of 1 m/s2 n N
Work energy quantity of heat Joule - work, which makes acting on a body constant force in 1 n on the way to 1 m, covered by the body in the direction of the force J. J
Power Watt - power of over 1 sec. is performed the work in 1 j W W
II. The amount of electricity, voltage, electric resistance, electrical capacity
The amount of electricity, the electric charge Pendant - the amount of electricity flowing through the cross-section for 1 sec. when power DC to 1 and to C
Voltage, electric potential difference, an electromotive force (EMF) Voltage - the voltage at the phase electrical circuit, when passing through that amount of electricity in 1, work is done in 1 j in V
Electrical resistance Om - conductor resistance, which at a constant voltage at the ends in 1 in undergoes constant current of 1 a om

Ω

Electric capacity Farada - the capacitor, the voltage between the plates which changes to 1 when charging the amount of electricity in 1 to f F
III. Magnetic induction, the flow of the magnetic induction, inductance, frequency
Magnetic induction Tesla - induction of a uniform magnetic field, which to plot a straight conductor of length 1 m, placed perpendicular to the direction of the field, acts with the power of 1 h at passage through the conductor DC to 1 and TL T
The flow of magnetic induction Weber - magnetic flux generated by a homogeneous magnetic field induction in 1 of THB through the area in 1 m2perpendicular to the direction of the magnetic induction vector WB Wb
Inductance Henry - inductance Explorer (coil), which Indochinese EMF into 1 in the current change it to 1 and 1 second. Mr. H
Frequency Hertz frequency of the periodic process, which for 1 sec. takes one oscillation (cycle, period) Hz Hz
IV. Luminous flux of light energy, brightness, illumination
Luminous flux Lumen - luminous flux, which gives the inside solid angle in 1 erased point light source in the 1 St, radiates equally in all directions LM lm
The light energy Lumen-second LM·s lm·s
Brightness Neath Arnost glowing plane, each square meter which gives you a direction, perpendicular to the plane, the power of the light in the 1 St HT nt
Illumination Deluxe illumination created a luminous flux of 1 LM uniform distribution on the area of 1 m2 LK lx
The amount of lighting Suite-second Luke·s lx·s