Uranium (U) - radioactive chemical element VI groups of periodic system of D. I. Mendeleev. Serial number 92, the atomic weight 238,03. Natural uranium consists of 3 isotopes: U238 ( 99,28%), U236, (0,71%) and U -234 (0,005%). Uranium isotopes using alpha-particles with energies 4,18 was 4.76 MeV. The half-life U238 = 4,49 · 109 years, U235-7,13·108U234 -2,48·105. The isotopes U238 and U -236 are the origins of the two natural radioactive families (uranium, radium and sea anemone). U228 and U235 able to divide the capture of neutrons. This property has identified the use of isotopes of uranium to obtain nuclear energy.
The toxic properties of uranium to its chemical action as a heavy metal and radioactive properties. The basic ways of receipt of uranium in the body are respiratory organs, digestive tract, and skin. In the body uranium postponed mainly kidneys (about 20%), in the skeleton (approximately 30%) and is excreted mainly with urine. Teff. uranium from the skeleton is 300 days of kidney 30 days. Low-soluble compounds are delayed mainly in the lungs and presented with Teff. 120 days. In early terms after exposure of uranium in the body intoxication related to its chemical action. Acute poisoning is characterized by lesions of the kidneys, liver, cardiovascular and other systems and organs. In severe cases, developing renal insufficiency with the clinical picture uraemia. Chronic exposure to low-soluble uranium compounds and long-term Deposit in their body cause toxic effects.