Urethra

The urinary tract (urethra) - excretory duct, through which urine is excreted from the bladder to the outside. Men through the urethra are also highlighted the secrets of sexual glands.
Anatomy. Female urethra - 3,5-4 cm wider than men, begins from the hole on the bottom of the bladder, runs behind and below the pubic joint, propodaet urogenital diaphragm and opens out between private parts lips beneath the clitoris. Male urethra is the tube length 22-25 cm, consisting of mucous membrane and muscle membranes, forming on his way S-shaped curve; starts with a hole at the bottom of the bladder, passes through the prostate gland, situated inside her. This part of the urethra is called the prostate. Behind it should webbed part through the urogenital diaphragm of the pelvis, and the sponge part, located between the cavernous bodies of the penis.
Prostate and webbed part of the urethra form a fixed part of it. Since the chords to suspend one 's penis, is the movable part of the urethra. The length of the prostate Department of the urethra 3-4 cm on the rear panel is longitudinal roller - seed tubercle, and on his side surfaces are situated the mouth semessersesy ducts and vents prostate glands. Membranous part of the urethra is the most narrow and the short of it Department. It is in this Department when catheterization may experience muscle resistance.
Under the pubic bones at the beginning of the spongy part is thickening - onion urethra. Bulbous part is characterized by a great number of duct mucous glands, there are ductless bulbourethral glands (Cooper). The peripheral part of the urinary canal - boat-hole. Here are botryoidal mucous cancer of the urethra (Littre). Often at the rear scaphoid fossa meets semilunar transverse crease.
The blood supply of the urethra through the branches of the domestic private parts artery. The vessels are widely anastomosis and form a complex arterial network. Vienna prostate and webbed part fall into the venous plexus pelvis, Vienna cavernous bodies are connected dorsal vein of the penis. Innervation of the urethra is carried out from the cavernous sympathetic plexus and spinal branches of the sacral nerves.

The urinary tract (urethra) is a tube through which urine and semen. The length of the male urethra is equal 18-20 see It can be divided into three sections: prostatic - a length of 3-4 cm, between the internal and external sphincter of the bladder (over urogenital diaphragm), membranous - in length of 1,5-2 cm, probcause urogenital diaphragm, and front - length 15-17 cm, which is divided toward the periphery of the onion (perineum), scrotal and hanging, or cavernous, part. The diameter of the lumen of the urethra is approximately 1 see the narrowest parts of the urethra are membranous Department and the outer hole; the most wide - prostatic and bulbous part, and scaphoid fossa behind the external opening. Throughout the urethra covered by a cylindrical epithelium, except scaphoid holes are lined with multi-layer flat epithelium.
On the mucous membrane in the urethra at the upper wall opened numerous holes glands Littre and gaps winking; on the lower wall bolotnoe part - holes of two larger glands Cooper, the value of which can reach a pea. On the back of prostatic Department of the urethra is the seed tubercle, fabric which consists of three layers: the mucous membrane, submucosal cavernous tissue and muscle layer.
On the lateral surfaces of seed tubercle open ducts of the prostate gland number from 30 to 50, and on top of it - the mouth of both the sperm ducts.
Muscular layers consist of smooth fibers that have the inside longitudinal, outside - the circular direction.
Arterial blood supply of prostatic Department is the average hemorrhoidal and lower gallbladder arteries, bolotnogo Department - bulbous artery, cavernous Department - a. urethralis, AA. dorsalis et profunda penis. Same vein going in the submucosa of the form plexus which flow partly plexus santorinius, partly plexus prostaticus.
Lymphatic vessels cavernous Department urethra go of the inguinal and external iliac lymph nodes, posterior to the Ilium, the lower and upper drainage of the lymph nodes.
Innervation of the urethra is shameful nerve, p. dorsalis penis and nn. perinei.
The urethra in women is significantly shorter than in men. Its length is equal to 3-4 see it opens the meager amount of sinuses and ductless glands; two of them open on the sides of the external opening of the urethra - ductless stenovyh glands.
Female urethra a blood supply from domestic private parts artery, the lower the gallbladder and vaginal artery. Vienna fall into santorinio plexus and the venous system of the vagina.

Research methods the urethra include palpation, obtaining and study of pathological secret, glass tests and instrumental examinations: bairovna (see), the sensing (see), a ureteroscopy, and x-ray methods of examination - urethrography (see). During the inspection of the urethra pay attention to the outer hole, its width, redness, presence of a discharge bonding sponges. At the same time during the inspection the head of the penis note pathology: anomalies of development, phimosis (see), inflammation of the glans and prepucialna bag, parauretral moves, ulceration. At a palpation revealed infiltrates, small nodules, change koprovyh glands. It is very important study of the modification of the urine stream. When there is an obstacle in the urethra flow of urine becomes thinner, but the power of the scab normal. With the weakening of the muscular wall of the bladder urine flow becomes sluggish and falls straight down. Examination of newly urine allows to solve the question of the extent of the pathological process in the urethra. For this purpose, using the glass samples. There dostana test; before the breakdown of the patient must be in 3-5 hours. not to urinate. The first portion of urine (50-60 ml) patient fills the first Cup, the rest of the number is the second. First of glass falls urine, washing mucus, pus or blood out of all of the urethra, the second - from the bladder. The presence of pus in the first glass will point to an inflammatory disease of the peripheral part of the urethra, pus in both glasses - rear part of the urethra. More accurate three-Cup test: using a catheter washed the front part of the urethra and the liquid is collected in the first drink, then the patient urinates in two steps. When assessing cloudy urine should not forget about the possibility of sediment salt. Uniformly cloudy sky urine may contain phosphoric acid crystals. From the addition to urine few drops of acetic acid haze disappears. Urine containing urates, becomes transparent when heating. Oxalates dissolve when you add in the urine of hydrochloric acid. Sediment urine is examined microscopically.

  • Developmental damage and stones of the urethra
  • Stricture and tumors of the urinary canal