Abnormalities of the urinary canal is very diverse, aplasia - no urethra - observed in nonviable fetuses simultaneously with other malformations urogenital system. The atresia of the urethra is the absence of separate sections of the channel has to be distinguished from the closing of the external opening of the urinary canal due to its bonding with the foreskin. Congenital stricture of the urethra they are most often located in prostatic Department and are semilunar (ring) folds of mucous membrane of the urinary canal, which prevent the emptying of the bladder. Congenital stricture of the urethra may go unnoticed because of compensatory hypertrophy of the bladder wall. Congenital fistulas (see Urinary fistulas), urethrocele, cysts and diverticula of the urethra is comparatively rare and easily diagnosed. Congenital urethral-rectal fistula are often combined with atresia anus. The most common types of anomalies of the urinary tract are epispadias (see) and hypospadias (see).
Operative treatment.
Damage to the male urethra is very diverse as on mechanism and localization. The most frequently observed damage bulbous part of the urethra caused by a blow crotch against a hard object.
Fractures of the pelvis with offset of your pelvic floor, as a rule, are accompanied by a rupture of the membranous part of the urethra. Damage prostatic portion of the urethra is very rare. Clinically trauma of the urethra is accompanied by pain, urethrorrhea, the appearance of bruises or urohematin at the injury site, and impaired urination. In the diagnosis of damage to the urethra is of great importance urethrography.
Small and incomplete breaks the urethra, not accompanied by the delay urination and the formation of urogenital, heal spontaneously. In related reflex delayed urine shown supra-pubic aspiration. In all other cases, surgery is needed overlay suprapubic fistula. Breaks female urethra are extremely rare.
The stones of the urethra may be primary, formed in the urethra, mainly in the diverticulum, and secondary, descended from the bladder. Primary stones are rare, secondary, usually easily pass through the urethra. In case of delay of stone hanging in the Department of the urethra (scaphoid hole or near it) it can be easily removed urethral forceps. Sometimes you have to resort to surgery (meatotomy). Large and tightly fixed stone, as a stone of diverticula, is removed by urethrotomy.
Inflammation of the urethra - see Urethritis.