Urine

  • Chemical composition of urine
  • Microscopic examination of urine sediment
  • Features of urine in children
  • Urine is the liquid product, produced by the kidneys and released through the urinary tract. With urine from the body removes unnecessary and harmful metabolic products. Daily quantity of urine is normal 1000-2000 ml It largely depends on the number of adopted liquid. The decrease in the amount of urine - oliguria (see), as the increase is polyuria (see) and full stopping of urination - anuria (see), can depend on a number kidney and vnepochechny factors. Urine analysis allows to establish violations of the kidney, as well as some changes of the currency associated with damage to other organs. Therefore, it is a compulsory part of the examination of any patient. There are clinical study of urine produced all patients, and a number of additional urine tests performed according to the indications in the patient. Clinical urine analysis consists of studying the physical properties, chemical composition and microscopic examination of sediment. Clinical analysis of urine produced in fresh single portion collected in the morning to clean glassware, and excretion of certain substances define daily urine.
    Study of physical properties of urine. Color normal urine (from straw to intense yellow) depends on the presence of pigments urochrome, urobilin, urologiya and other Color of urine when bilirubinuria (see) - from bright yellow to brown (when shaking yellow foam), when urobilinemia (see) - amber, yellow-reddish, with hematuria (see) - red or brown. Some medicines and food products change the color of urine: it becomes red beet and piramidon, bright yellow from taking Akrikhin, Riboflavin, biomitsin etc.
    Transparency normal urine is almost full. Turbidity give her plenty of formed elements, microbes, loss of salts and mucus.
    The smell of freshly collected urine has diagnostic value only if it smells like acetone ("the smell of rotten apples" when diabetes) or ammonia (cystitis).
    The reaction of the newly urine on the litmus paper of acidic or slightly acidic (blue litmus paper blushes), pH 5-7. It can become alkaline (red turns blue litmus paper) from predominantly vegetative food, from the intake of alkaline drugs (soda), mineral waters, after vomiting, urinary tract infections.
    The share define immersing of eurometro (see). Usually it varies from 1,002 to 1,030 and depends on the amount of fluid you drink, sweating, food regime , and so on, kidney Disease, in violation of their excretory capacity, lead to decrease of specific weight, vnepochechny fluid loss to its increase. The highest specific weight of urine (up to 1,040-1,050) is observed in diabetes mellitus. If urine is not enough to dive prometra, it can be diluted in half (for sure!) distilled water, measure the weight and the last two digits of the double (for example, defined 1,007, specific weight of 1,014 registered).