Urology is the area of clinical medicine that studies of normal and pathological physiology, etiology, pathogenesis, diagnostics, treatment and prevention of diseases of the urinary and reproductive systems of men and urinary system women. Some sections of urology closely related to the Nephrology (see); in addition, urology deals with the study and treatment of gonorrhea (see) in men.
Wide development of urology received after the implementation of special investigation methods: cystoscopy (see) and artroskopii (see), excretory urography (see), pielografii (see), cystography (see), urethrography (see), renal angiography (see) and other
The big place in urological diagnostics take cytological research methods (see Cytological diagnosis), needle biopsy (see), as well as methods of radioisotope diagnostics (see). Cm. also Andrology.

Anatomy and physiology of urinary system

In women urinary and reproductive systems are isolated from each other, in men, they are reported in the prostatic portion of the urethra, where open excretory ducts of the prostate gland and semyavynosyaschih ducts.

The symptomology

Pathological processes in the organs of the urogenital system are manifested three main groups of symptoms: 1) pain, 2) disorders of urination, 3) changes in the urine.

Research methods

Before proceeding to the examination of the patient, it is necessary to collect detailed history. Along with obseneties information about the conditions of life and work, on previous diseases must be installed when the first signs of this disease and how it developed in the future. Special attention should be paid to the main symptoms of urological diseases - pain, disorders of urination, changes the nature of urine, disorders of sexual function and so on,

Malformations (anomalies) of the urinary tract

In comparison with other systems of the human body malformations of the urinary tract occur very often. The frequency and variety of anomalies first place is occupied by the kidneys and the urinary tract, because of the special complexity of their embryogenesis.

Urogenital TB

Men tuberculosis urinary system is often combined with genital TB. In women they rarely coexist.

Tumors of the urinary tract

The trauma of organs of urogenital system

Other diseases of the genitourinary system

"Handbook of urology" is the first publication of this kind in the Russian literature. Unlike numerous textbooks and manuals urology it contains the most necessary, practical and at the same time corresponding to the current level of scientific information on symptoms, clinical course, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diseases of the urinary and male genital organs in a concise form. The directory consists of 11 sections, each of which material is presented in the form of separate articles in alphabetical order. This Handbook will facilitate the use of them in their everyday practical work, will speed up the search of necessary physician information.
"Handbook of urology" should be useful for both urologists and for practical doctors of other specialities who are not familiar with the pathology of the urinary and male genital organs, but are constantly faced with urological diseases and complications of urinary organs in patients of different profile.
We hope that the work of a large group of authors and compilers of the Handbook will allow doctors-urologists to deepen practical knowledge in their field, and clinicians working in different fields of medicine, to get acquainted with such an important and multi-faceted discipline, as the modern urology.