Differences in levels of longevity of men and women

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The problem of mismatched sizes mortality and life expectancy for male and female population in almost all countries in recent years, growing attention of various specialists - demographers, social of pathologists, geneticists and sociologists. This is understandable, because identify the difference, for example, life expectancy of men and women of our planet are 3-4 years (Mexico) to 9 years (USSR), and the reasons for which the authors in explaining these differences, diverse. Together with biological factors related to the structure of the genetic apparatus of the female body, some constitutional signs and implementation of a woman of childbearing function, specifies that, in various countries and social groups of the population at the individual nationalities and geographic areas there is a peculiarity in the position of women in the workplace and in the family, in content that it performs family of functions, some elements of life in the character of pathology. Despite the emergence of recent number of works on this issue (B. C. Urlanis, 1963; N. N. Sachuk, 1972; M. S. Poor, 1976; D. F. Chebotarev, 1976), many issues remain unclear.
A review of comparable statistical materials from 60 countries in all continents over a long period (from the beginning of XX century) has allowed to define the features of not only the life expectancy, but longevity of men and women in different regions of the globe.
1. In many countries (but not all), there is a higher level of longevity of women.
2. In countries where there is such excess, its size varies.
3. The excess of the indicators of longevity of women, as a rule, is directly proportional to the total indicators of life expectancy of the population on this territory. In countries with a high General level of longevity differences by gender is more pronounced and Vice versa.
4. Until recently, there was observed a steady process of increase of these differences on virtually all the areas studied, although the rate dynamics was uneven.
Considering regional special features in terms of longevity of women and men, we must distinguish the main types of observed patterns in individual countries.
The first type is characterized by the fact that, against the background of large overall longevity of the population (180 = 30-45 thousand per 100,000 live births) is not very pronounced difference by sex, with some exceeding last in women (she is 12-15 thousand). Such data marked the inhabitants of the Scandinavian countries with high economic potential (Norway, Sweden, Denmark)and in the Netherlands.
For the second type (with moderate overall longevity of the population - I80=20-30 thousand) typical maximum gap between the indicators of longevity for men and women (18-20 thousand per 100 000 people). While there is a slight growth differentials by sex (England, France, the USSR, USA, Canada, Australia).
Third tin ratios (in the countries with the lowest level of longevity - I80=5-10 thousand) is characterized by small excess indicator of longevity women (within 1-6 thousand) and a slow increase over the years (India, Greenland, Pakistan and some other countries).
An intermediate position is a big company of agrarian and industrial and developing countries from all continents, in which the average amount exceeding the indicators of longevity of women is observed on the background of relatively low General indicators of longevity.
The nature of the identified trends, the magnitude of the changes in the differences between male and female longevity during XX century and their territorial diversity, variation on the floor in a separate public groups of people and representatives of different nationalities allow deeper into the social nature of this phenomenon. A significant increase of the gap between the level of longevity of women and men, which occurred in a relatively short period, cannot be explained only by the biological specifics of the body of women or benefits that nature has endowed female body. Cannot be included due to a genetic programmed and considerable variability of the dimensions identified regional characteristics on various grounds.