Environmental conditions

In the etiology of peptic ulcer important acquire different environmental factors.
In the experiment protein and vitamin starvation causes ulcerations (Ragnavan, 1962), however in conditions of malnutrition in humans, the frequency of ulcer disease is not increased. Cleave (1962), discussing the low frequency of ulcer disease among inmates of concentration camps in Japan and the inhabitants of the Warsaw ghetto, argues that this is due to the peculiarities of a diet consisting of raw (not deprived of protein) carbohydrates. It is known that the largest buffer activity have proteins, and the lowest carbohydrates. The buffer effect of food provides for timely and consistent integration of mechanisms of self-regulation of digestion. Apparently, the cumulative effect of any nutrients on gastric secretion due to a combination of their buffer actions and sokogonnym activity.
We should not forget about the national habits and peculiarities of cuisine of different peoples of the world. Overeating, random, irregular eating, constant a diet of indigestible food cause functional disorders of the stomach secretions, and can result in excessive stretching of the antrum, accompanied by the allocation of large amounts of gastrin and hypersecretion, Clinical experience and brilliant experimental studies I. P. Razenkova (1948) indicate that a violation of the diet, is certainly one of the predisposing factors to the occurrence of peptic ulcer disease.
So far there is finally formed point of view about the importance of Smoking and alcohol. Probably, they should be classified as contributing factors in the development of peptic ulcers. The abuse of tobacco and alcohol affects motor and secretory activity of the stomach, accompanied by a breach of trophic processes in the gastric mucosa. At different initial state of these functions and nicotine and alcohol can either amplify or, on the contrary, to oppress. Perhaps nicotine affects the pipework system of blood circulation in the stomach mucosa.
Geographical location can play a role that perhaps explains different frequency ulcerous disease in the individual countries. So, in the Peruvian Andes at an altitude of 10,000 - 16 000 feet above sea level, the miners significantly more frequent stomach ulcers than those contingents of workers living in low-lying areas that could be due to circulatory hypoxia mucous membrane of the stomach and its subsequent destruction.
There are a number of diseases, which are often combined with the occurrence of peptic ulcers. These cases are, as a rule, should not be included in the category "peptic ulcer disease", but must be allocated to the group "symptomatic ulcers".
Among them the most important are the so-called "endocrine sores", which occupies the leading place syndrome Zollinger-Ellison (ulcerogenic adenoma of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas), including most non-healing ulcers often atypical located, as well as a huge gastric hypersecretion against the "not β-cell adenomas. To this group are adjacent and the so-called "drug ulcers".
In most of these cases there is no deep violations of regulatory mechanisms governing the development of peptic ulcers and the formation of defects mucous membrane caused mainly local trophic disorders *. So, peptic ulcers often occur in patients with chronic lung disease, with severe pulmonary failure, liver cirrhosis, certain forms of cardiovascular disease. Mechanisms for the formation of these plagues still poorly studied.
To medicinal substances, which can cause peptic ulcers include: steroid hormones, aspirin, reserpine, phenylbutazone and other Aspirin destroys the protective layer of the stomach mucosa, biosynthesis of glycoproteins helps reverse the diffusion of hydrogen ions into the thickness of the mucous membrane that is accompanied by the local release of histamine and violation of the integrity of the capillary wall (Davenport, 1967; Kent, 1968). Sores typically are located in the body of the stomach, small curvature. Often they are accompanied by a hidden or overt bleeding.
Education chronic peptic ulcers in the gastro-duodenal zone may be associated with a particular course of acute ulcers. Just in literature in 1970 described more than 2,000 acute ulcers (C. X. Vasilenko and others, 1970). Jones and others (1968) consider very important for future research to find out the conditions of transition of acute ulcers chronic. According to Century X. Vasilenko and co-authors, in the event of a severe erosions and ulcers of the primary importance of circulatory disorders of the gastrointestinal wall. Other authors (A. A. Greenberg and I. Century Morozov, 1969 and others) consider the occurrence of acute ulcers as a result of non-specific organism reaction to the effects of stressor (stress ulcers). These forms are often complicated by bleeding and perforation. Symptomatic and drug ulcers can be attributed to acute ulcers.

* Detail the clinical features of symptomatic (including endocrine and drug plagues described in the monograph s, M, RISSA and E. C. RISSA "peptic Ulcer disease", Leningrad, 1968.