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The establishment of limitation of death

Muscle stiffness in skeletal muscles is usually defined 2-4 h after death and finally formed to 24 hours after 3 days comes its resolution. Hence, lack of muscle rigor indicates that the death occurred within the first 2-4 hours or after 3 days. This type of early cadaveric changes is very relative importance for determining the limitation of death, because currently there are no methods for quantitative registration of muscle development of rigor Mortis, which could determine the intensity of rigor Mortis in terms of time, moreover, that certain causes of death (mechanical brain injury, poisoning some poisons) stiffness is developing very quickly and, Vice versa, in other types of death (long agony, septic process) it can be very mild or not to appear at all.
The intensity of cooling corpse depends on many factors, which include the weight of the corpse, the severity of subcutaneous fat, the presence or absence of service, its seasonality, as well as ambient temperature, etc. To determine the limitations of death upon detection of a corpse in the ordinary room conditions and relative humidity 40-60 %, with simultaneous measurement of temperature of a corpse (in the armpits and in the rectum), you can use the data given in table. 2.

Table 2. Change of temperature of a corpse, depending on the limitation of death1
The body temperature,% The prescription of death, h
armpits in the rectum
1 body weight 70-80 kg ambient temperature +18 C and summer clothing on the body.

The most intense temperature changes begin in 6 hours after the heart stops. Prior to this period, it is quite close to the normal body temperature of a living person. After 24 hours the body temperature of a corpse is close to the ambient temperature, and therefore the temperature in the rectum is also appropriate to measure the most carefully. For temperature measurement in the body it is recommended to use the electric thermometers with high resolution (tenths and hundredths of a degree C), measurements should be made repeatedly within 1 - 1,5 hours currently developed and proposed the program for the calculator that allows you to process the changes in body temperature with a sufficiently high degree of reliability to get the statement of occurrence of death within two days posthumous period.
The earliest symptom of drying of a corpse, by which you can judge about the time of death, are spot Lerche that are clearly defined on average by 4-5 h after death, therefore, no stains Large shows that the death was no more than 4-5 hours ago.
A number of features that contribute to the establishment of terms of death, can be identified by applying a pharmaceutical or using electrical, mechanical and other impacts.
In expert practice method is used, based on identifying the reaction of the pupil under the influence of a number of pharmacological substances. With the introduction of 1 % solution of atropine effects pupil dilation on average, there are up to 24 hours post-mortem period, the effect of narrowing of the pupils in the same period is determined with the introduction of 1 % solution pilokarpina. More accurate diagnosis of the timing of death is possible with the introduction of these solutions directly in front of the camera eye (using a needle and syringe).
With the purpose of establishment of limitations death also used the technique based on the registration of the phenomena of elektrovozoremontnij muscle tissue. This is done using devices with power source (batteries pocket lantern). Needle electrodes are injected into the muscles of the eyes, facial muscles of the face or flexor limbs. The greatest effect in contractile muscle tissue is observed at the irritation of the eye muscles, then the facial muscles and limbs.
For the evaluation of the limitation of death uses the response of muscle tissue to mechanical irritation. A sufficiently strong and sharp blows to the flexors and extensors of a solid object (neurological hammer and other solid objects with limited surface) is the so-called phenomenon of occurrence idiomuscular tumors in the form of muscle roller, well-defined under the skin. Such response of the muscle tissue mechanical irritation occurs within the first 4-8 hours after the time of death.
Signs such as cooling, the changing nature of corpse spots and muscle rigor Mortis, elektrovozoremontnij and some others, it is desirable to investigate the dynamics, since the examination of the corpse at the scene and in the morgue (in 1-2 hours) at the beginning and end of the study of the corpse.