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Forensic setting age

Between the age of 14-18 years of importance for the determination of age have the presence and severity of secondary sexual characteristics. Girls take into account the occurrence and frequency of menses; the pigmentation of the labia majora, adult male and armpits, size and severity of the mammary glands, color nipples, the size of the pelvis. Menstruation appear in the middle of 13-14 years; breast development begins with, to 11 years 16-18 years they usually already developed. By 17-18 years in girls ends development of the pelvis. Adult pubic and armpit starts at 11 - 13 years.
Boys emission appear on average to 15 years, adult pubic and armpit - 13-17 years, from the age of 16 begins the increase of the genital organs, increases their pigmentation; the voice becomes rougher. In 16-17 years appears fluff on his chin, at the age of 18 will begin to grow hair on the cheeks.
To ascertain the age along with the described antropologicheskii signs used (in the age period from birth to 17 years) anthropometry data (growth standing, chest circumference alone, body weight). However, these measures in connection with the continuing acceleration is subject to considerable fluctuations.
In the human body in its normal physiological development there is a correlation between the age and the degree of differentiation of the skeletal system that can be set during radiography. Thus determine the so-called bone age. In age from birth to 3 years take into account the degree of differentiation of bone skeleton, the appearance of ossification nuclei, a healing springs.
At the age of 3 years to 20-21 year, when there ended the formation of bone skeleton, identify core ossification and the onset of Cilostazol, overgrowing seam roof and base of the skull.
Most often, the determination of age produce x-rays brush and distal forearm. In table. 14 and 15 the data on the timing of expression and localization of ossification nuclei and synostosis bones of the hand and lower limbs under the age of 20 years.

Table 14. Education of Cilostazol in the bones of the upper extremities (Pashkov Century I., Burov S. A., 1980]
Localization Age, years
boys girls
The epiphyses I metacarpal bones and distal phalanges
The proximal epiphysis, middle phalanges and II-V metacarpal bones
Distal radial and ulnar bones
The head of the humerus
Large protuberance of the humerus
Capitate exaltation; external condyle and the block of the humerus
Internal condyle of the humerus
Olecranon
Proximal epiphysis of the radial bone
14-18
14-20
16-20
17-20
3-7
13-16
14-18
13-18
13-18
12-16
12-17
13-19
16-19
2-6
11-13
12-15
11-16
10-15
Table 15. Education of Cilostazol in the bones of the lower extremities
Localization Age, years
boys girls
Epiphysis I metatarsal bone
The epiphyses of the distal phalanges
The epiphysis of the proximal phalanges
The epiphyses middle phalanges
The epiphyses II-V of the metatarsal
Roughness V metatarsal
Apophis heel bone
The head of the femur
Big and small Vartely thighs
Distal epiphysis tibia, proximal epiphysis of the big and small tibia bones
Roughness of tibia
Distal epiphyses big and small tibia bones
14-18
12-18
13-19
12-17
14-19
12-15
13-18
15-19
15-18

15-20
14-19
14-18
11-16
11-15
10-16
9-14
12-16
10-13
10-16
13-18
13-17

13-18
13-17
12-17

In Mature and old age take into account the presence of involutive and dystrophic changes of bone tissue (the phenomenon of osteoporosis, bone growth, cartilage ossification parts of the skeleton, the intensity of overgrowing seams of skull, islinenote and pulkovoairport lower jaw and others).
So, usually after 30 years, the skin becomes yellowish, wrinkles at the corners of the eyes and forehead well expressed, begin to appear predatelskaya wrinkles and wrinkles behind the ears. Well seen effaced enamel incisors and molars, close to 40 years starts to strip dentin on chewing surfaces of the teeth, the teeth become yellow.
Begins graying of hair at her temples.
After 50 years of facial wrinkles sharply kontenerowy, wrinkled neck, starts at the number of people baldness, hair turning gray, begins the growth of hair in the ear and nose.
Pronounced erasing teeth.
After 60 years, all the described changes are even more pronounced. Typical brown spots on the back surface of the hands, loss of turgor of the skin.
The conclusion about the age should be made on the basis of the analysis of the presence and severity of all these signs, taking into account conditions and way of life, work, health status, presence or absence of bad habits.

Checklist
1. List the reasons for forensic establishing the age.
2. What methods are used to determine age (in different age periods)?