Pages: 1 2

Forensic setting age

The code of criminal procedure provides for the mandatory examination to ascertain the age of the accused, the suspect and the victim in cases where this is relevant to the case, and the age proof documents missing (article 79 of the code of criminal procedure of the RSFSR and the relevant articles of the CPC of the other Union republics). The necessity of determining the age due to the fact that in accordance with the requirements of a number of articles of the criminal and civil codes from reaching specific age depends on the occurrence of certain legal consequences, in particular the issues of criminal responsibility.
Full capacity, i.e. the ability of certain individuals to purchase the rights and obligations provided by the law, there comes upon reaching 18 years of age. Criminal responsibility for committing crimes is 16 years of age, and for murder, intentional infliction of bodily injuries, rape, robbery, hooliganism and some other dangerous crimes - from 14 years of age (article 10 of the criminal code of the RSFSR and the relevant articles of the criminal code of other Union republics).
The need for age determination occurs and on other occasions: at the substitution of children, the recruitment, identification of the person, the examination of corpses, victims of dismemberment, or upon discovery of the corpses of unknown persons and other
The basis of age determination is based on several criteria: antropologicheskij (the condition of the skin, the emergence and change of teeth, their changes, secondary sexual characteristics) and anthropometric, reflecting the quantitative side of physical development (growth, chest circumference, weight), and other signs (formation, differentiation, involution of elements of a skeleton and other involutive changes).
Signs that are the basis of a forensic expert, setting the age, very varied and depend on the social conditions and biological characteristics (living conditions and nutrition, heredity, illness, physical activity, profession and others). In this regard, each of the signs is the relative probative value and the conclusion of age should be based on the analysis of the totality of characteristics.
In different age periods opportunities for a more or less exact determination of different age. Only in the first few days of life the infant really the definition of life with the accuracy of 1-2 days. In infancy (1st year of life) errors can be 1 to 1.5 months, in the senior school, teenagers (12-17 years) - 2-3 years. In Mature (21-60 years)and elderly (60-75 years) and elderly (over 76 years) age variations in the accuracy of determining the age of reach 5-10 years.
During the examination of the age of the children and young people (girls) take into account anthropometric and antropologicheskie signs that characterize physical development and defined period: the dimensions of the head, torso, limbs, the length and mass of the body, the presence of milk teeth and replace their permanent teeth, state and degree of abrasion of teeth, differentiation of bone skeleton, and menstruation and wet dreams, the development of secondary sexual characteristics. In adults addition take into account the characteristics of the involution of the skeletal system, change the color and turgor of the skin, the presence and severity of wrinkles on the face.
Age peculiarities of the skin (the change in the elasticity, pigmentation, keratinization, increasing the number of collagen fibers and other) subject to large fluctuations and largely private. The tentative dates of the appearance of wrinkles on the face of the following: frontal and nasolabial - at the age of about 20 years, fine wrinkles at the outer corners of eyes - in 25-30 years, predatelskaya - 35 years, fanning the outer corner of eye - in 35-40 years, on the hands and the lobes of the ears - after 50 years. For 55 years on the face, the back surfaces of hands and forearms began to appear pigmented areas, the skin loses its elasticity.
Relatively accurate indicator are age-related features of the teeth. Data on the degree erase the teeth of the upper jaw , depending on age is shown in table. 13.

Table 13. The degree of abrasion of teeth of the upper jaw in conventional indicators depending on age (Gerasimov M. I., 1955]
Age, years Cutters Canines Small indigenous The first large indigenous The second large indigenous
13-14
14-16
16-18
18-20
20-25
25-30
30-35
35-40
40-50
50-60
60-70
0-1
1
1-2
2-3
2-3
3
3
3
3-4
4-5
5-6
0
0
1
2
2
2
2-3
3
3-4
4
5
0
1
1
2
2
2-3
2-3
3
3-4
4
5-6
0
0
1
2
2
2-3
3
3-4
4
5
5-6
0
0
0
1
2
2
2-3
3
3-4
4-5
6
Note: to 13 years of erasing has not started yet, 0 - erase no; 1 - worn only enamel; 2 - erase tubercles; 3 - erasing touched dentin; 4 - erasing touched root canal; 5-erasing reached the total cross section of the crown; 6 - full erasing crowns.