The essence of fatigue and prevention

Fatigue is a special physiological state of the organism, resulting from the work and expressed in loss of efficiency. Objectively fatigue is the reduction in labour productivity. Subjective fatigue is expressed in the feeling of fatigue. Fatigue is characterized by a feeling of weakness, apathy to work. To explain the essence of fatigue was offered many different hypotheses. For example, the hypothesis of exhaustion explained the essence of fatigue by reducing energy reserves. Studies have demonstrated the groundlessness of this hypothesis, as fatigue may occur before the exhaustion of body energy reserves (glycogen).
The other hypothesis (Vahard and others) explained fatigue education in the body "poisons fatigue". This hypothesis also was untenable, because the symptoms of intoxication occurred in animals that were injected extract neotemlemoy muscles.
These and other assumptions did not take into account changes in the nervous system that occur at work. Concentrating your attention on individual factors, they could not give an exhaustive explanation of fatigue. I. M. Sechenov expressed this thought: "...the source of the sensation of fatigue placed in the working muscles, I put... only in the Central nervous system" *.
I. P. Pavlov saw the root cause of fatigue in the change of the functional state of Central nervous system - the brain cortex. As a result of work in the cortex of the brain occurs the process spilled braking, which protects the cells of bark from exhaustion. This theory resolves the question of the mechanism of fatigue at a mental labour, static work, accompanied negligible energy costs. This theory explains the impact on the health of a person's emotional state (fatigue after an encouraging word, under the influence of music, when interest in the work and others).
However, you cannot consider changes that occur when fatigue in the cerebral cortex, in isolation from other changes in the body. Fatigue because, obviously, the change of the functional state of the whole organism, with the leading role belongs to the changes in the Central nervous system.
Exhaustion is a reversible phenomenon. Usually after a rest it disappears and the performance is fully restored. However, poor organization of work, even after a night's rest, working capacity is not restored completely and slowly so-called fatigue.
For fatigue characterized by headaches, insomnia, loss of appetite, irritability, weakening of memory, loss of strength of the body. Fatigue is a characteristic feature of conditions and work organization in the capitalist countries. The main event on combating fatigue is the elimination of the excessive length of the working day. In this connection it is difficult to overestimate the value held in our country measures to reduce the duration of the working day and working week.
Rational system of alternating periods of work and the intervals between them is also important. The duration of breaks should be sufficient for the restoration of physiological functions. However, it should be borne in mind that prolonged interruptions can lead to loss of state "srabatyvaet and lower productivity.
Positive influence of physical exercises during short breaks (active rest).
A significant role is played by the rhythm of work. Remember that too much automation movements can lead to the development of premature fatigue. So the feature line method, used by our companies, is the change of the operations performed work.
Measures to combat fatigue are automation and mechanization of production, improvement of the manufacturing facilities.

* Sechenov I. M. To the question about the impact of sensitive nerves in the muscular work of man. Physiology of the nervous system. Selected works. Vol. III, kN. I. 1952, S. 165.