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Drowning

  • Signs of stay of the corpse in the water
  • Under drowning, you should understand a separate type of violent death, which was due to a number of external influences on the human body when immersed his body in a fluid. At a certain stage of development of the complex pathophysiological process of dying join phenomenon, defined by the aspiration of fluids.
    Often drowning in the water. By the nature of death, as a rule, accident, rarely, suicide, and even more rarely - the murder.
    An indispensable condition of drowning is immersion in the liquid. Closing of the respiratory tract and cavities liquid and subsequent aspektidele state should be considered as a special case of obstructive apnea. For example, immersion only person in the shallow stream or puddle can cause death due to aspiration of asphyxia, but not drowning.
    In a sudden and rapid immersion in water or other liquid, accompanied by the closure of its respiratory tract, in the body develops complex and not always unambiguous complex pathophysiological changes. At the heart of this complex are several factors: low (in comparison with the body and the surrounding air) water temperature, hydrostatic pressure, changing from the depth, psycho-emotional stress caused by fear. Last may deprive (even able to swim well) a person's ability to stay on the water surface.
    The Genesis of death when drowning may be different:
    1) water at a temperature of about 20 C, getting in the upper divisions of the respiratory tract, may cause irritation to mucous membranes and endings verkhneportovaja nerve, which leads to spasms of the vocal cords and reflex cardiac arrest. This mechanism of death was named espectaculo (or dry) drowning;
    2) penetrating into the upper respiratory tract, water closes them. This type of drowning was named the "true", or "wet", drowning. Occurs typical asphyxia from the close of the upper respiratory tract, occurring as a mechanical asphyxia, in several phases.
    Initially observed reflex latency (stop) breathing lasting 30 to 60 C. After this comes phase inspiratory breathlessness (up to 1 min), the water begins to penetrate the respiratory tract and lungs. Inspiratory wheezing replaces expiratory, the beginning of which is lost consciousness, develop convulsions, reflexes are lost. Water continues to penetrate into the lungs and in the small vessels, and then the systemic circulation, significantly diluting blood (gemodilucia) and hemolytica her.
    It is established, that in the blood can enter the water in the amount approximately equal to the volume of circulating blood. After expiratory dyspnea breath for a short time stops, then there are a few deep breathing movements (terminal breath), during which continues the penetration of water into the lungs. Then comes persistent respiratory failure due to paralysis of the respiratory centre and in 5-10 min persistent cardiac arrest. Death occurs. There are cases when drowning initially developed by anfictionica type, and ends on the type of the true drowning (laringospazm allowed, water enters the respiratory tract and lungs) ;
    3) under the action of cold water on the body spasm of blood vessels of the skin and lungs, there comes a reduction of respiratory muscles, resulting in a sharp respiratory failure and cardiac activity, hypoxia of the brain, leading to rapid death, even before the development actually drowning.
    Different kinds of death makes a difference in the severity and nature of morphological changes obnarujivaesh during the forensic examination of corpses.
    The whole period of drowning lasts 5-6 minutes On the speed of development of asphyxia the premedical affect the water temperature. In cold water death by drowning is accelerated because of the cold effect on the reflex zones. When drowning water, as a rule, being swallowed up, enters the stomach and first part of the small intestine.
    The mechanism of death from drowning in other liquids not substantively different from drowning in the water.