Drowning is death from acute oxygen starvation as a result of obstruction of the Airways in various fluids, usually water. From drowning should be distinguished sudden death in the water, coming from the man from various diseases of the heart or reflex spasm larynx, bleeding in the brain and other
Normally, when the drowning death occurs immediately, but within 4-5 minutes (due to ventricular fibrillation and cardiac arrest). When inspecting the corpse find foam in the nostrils and mouth (the main characteristic feature of drowning), the skin looks so called goose skin, pale and materialen.
When the autopsy notes emphysema, increase their volume and weight and marble coating. In the Airways reveals persistent fine bubble foam, in the stomach and the initial section of the small intestine - liquid. These signs are not strictly-specific death from drowning. Reliable sign of drowning is detected in a laboratory study (diatom analysis) in the internal organs, particularly the kidneys and bone marrow, calcareous shells of diatoms that fall with water in the lungs, later in the blood and are carried in the authorities. But if the victim was doing CPR, the presence of diatoms plankton may not be evidence of drowning.
Corpses recovered from the water, may have different damage that occur as lifetime and posthumously. Drowning is often the accident, however, the known cases of murder, and suicide. Suicide sometimes tied load or bind their hands, and sometimes the legs. To establish death from drowning produce a thorough analysis of all the circumstances of the accident, morphological changes of the corpse, and laboratory research results.
First aid when drowning. If conscious, pulse and respiration satisfactory, complaints of respiratory failure are not available, first of all the patient calm, laid on the hard, dry bed with lowered head end; if the person in dress, undress, wipe dry with a towel and covered with a warm blanket.
After removing the victim from the water with a satisfactory pulse and breathing, but unconscious, immediately take measures for the prevention and treatment of hypoxia (see): push the lower jaw (head thrown back and support the airway, placed on the hard bed of low-head end, quickly free (finger) oral cavity from silt, Tina, vomit, undress the patient, wipe dry, warm.
When removing the victim from the water without independent breathing, but with preserved heart tones after the same preliminary activities as soon as possible carry out hardware artificial respiration or by the method of "mouth - to-mouth or mouth-to-nose" (see CPR). After the restoration of self-breathing support the lower jaw (press to the top) for breathing through the nose or give nasal duct.

indirect heart massage
Indirect heart massage

If the victim breathing and cardiac activity, that carry out the intensive care unit (see the Revival of the body) - artificial respiration "mouth-to-mouth or mouth to the nose, at the same time indirect heart massage to a hard bed with lowered head end, head thrown back (Fig). When the efficiency of the activities - the pupils of the victim narrowed, appear satisfactory heart activity and respiration.
Urgent hospitalization affected by drowning all necessary even mild cases because of the possibility of subsequent complications and even death from them.

  • Drowning in forensic medicine