Physical education in middle and old age

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Growth of material well-being of workers, the radical change of conditions of work and life, the success of public health, the development of mass physical culture resulted in conjunction with other factors increase the life expectancy of the population in our country with 32 years in the pre-revolutionary period to 70 years now. According to the results of the all-Union census of population, the absolute number of people 60 years and older was in 1959 19,7 million, in 1970-28.5 million, in 1975-33.5 million the Number of people of middle and old age has been steadily increasing and will increase in the future. This makes the task of strengthening their health and prolong labor creative activity.
Problems of aging are gerontology - the science about the causes and mechanisms of aging and geriatrics - the science that studies of illness in old age. Aging is a natural biological process, which is manifested morphological and functional changes in the body. It starts from the earliest days of human development is uneven and in individual cells and tissues, organs and body systems. Distinguish between physiological and premature pathological aging. The latter is the result migrated during the life of various diseases, under the influence of unfavorable environmental conditions, unsustainable lifestyles, physical inactivity, unhealthy habits and other factors.
Despite significant individual differences in terms of the emergence and progression of age changes in the USSR in accordance with the decision of the Symposium by age periodization (Leningrad, 1962) and the International seminar on the problems of gerontology of the world health organization (Kiev, 1963) the division of the population by age group (table. 3).
One of the main factors that cause aging of the whole organism, are age-structural and functional changes in the nervous system, its Central sections. With age deteriorating health, memory, particularly on current events; increased irritability, decreased function of sensory systems. Among persons 60 years and older weakens the braking process and (less frequently) excitation. Reduced strength, mobility and balance of nervous processes and develops their inertness. More difficult are formed and fixed conditional reflexes, and therefore complicated by the development of new movements. Slowing the rate of reaction increases their latent period, lost agility and coordination. The deterioration in the ability to learn rhythms of work, to transform them, to move from one mode to another.
Age-related changes at different levels of the nervous system in combination with endocrine changes lead to violations of adaptation-regulatory mechanisms that affect the nature of the reaction of organism to physical exercises. Lengthens the process of srabatyvaet, limited range of functional changes in the body in response to muscle work, decreased performance, increased rehabilitation period after exercise.
Over the years, qualitatively changes the metabolism, decreasing its intensity. Subject to change protein, carbohydrate, lipid, water and mineral metabolism. There is a destruction of part of the cells, tissues and organs substitution their connection and fat. Significantly reduced the intensity of redox processes and use of oxygen. After 40 years the content of calcium in the blood vessels, cartilage gradually increased, and in the bones, on the contrary, decreases. This leads to the deterioration of the elasticity of blood vessels, limited mobility in the joints, osteoporosis (loosening) and brittle bones.