Vaccine preparations from attenuated (weakened) of living or dead organisms, products of their activity, as well as from individual antigenic components of microbial cells. Vaccines are used to improve specific resistance (resistance) people and animals to infectious diseases and to treat some of these diseases (brucellosis, tularemia, staphylococcal infections , and so on), have a tendency to chronic or retidiviruuschem course (see Vaccinotherapy). In a number of infectious and allergic diseases, chronic foci of infection the best in the effect of auto-vaccine prepared from microorganisms isolated from the patient.
There are live vaccines - pox, measles, influenza, polio, yellow fever, q-fever, typhus, typhoid, tuberculosis (see BCG), tularemia, brucellosis, plague, rabies (against rabies), anthrax, and others, vaccines from dead organisms (killed vaccine) - against tick-borne encephalitis, bruchkomitsky, paratifizna, dysentery, cholera, subnational and others; toxoids - tetanus, diphtheria, and others (see the Toxoid).
Chemical vaccines prepared from a single antigenic components of microbial cells (for example, vaccine, niece, ciproterona vaccine). The number of antigenic components distinguish mono (one component), three(three components - pertussis, diphtheria, tetanusand poliomyelitis (several components, such as typhoid, paratyphoid, cholera, tetanus).
Vaccines can be liquid and dry, and drying prolong the shelf life. Vaccines, as a rule, should not contain extraneous microorganisms (for smallpox and dry dysentery vaccine is permitted for a limited number of non-pathogenic microbes).
Live vaccines prepared from strains with attenuated virulence, unable to cause disease, but breeding in the body vaccinated and causing the process leading to the development of specific immunity (see). As a rule, the use of live vaccines is achieved elaborate more persistent immunity than using the dead.
For preparation killed vaccines inactivate microbes heating at temperature 54-58 degrees (heated vaccines) or disinfecting chemicals - acetone (acetone vaccines), alcohol (alcohol vaccines), formalin (formalisierung vaccines) and other Concentrations of substances used for inactivation should not be reduced antigenic and immunogenic properties of microbes and should be harmless to humans.
Manufacturing of vaccines and anatoxinum strictly regulated by the instructions approved by the Ministry of health of the USSR and the Committee of vaccines and serums. Each ampoule, vial or packaging vaccines should be a label listing the main qualities of the drug, dose, expiry date, storage mode, series and the date of release with the name of the issuing institution (see Bacterial drugs).