vaginaVagina connects the uterus to the eve of the vagina and through him with the external environment. Begins vagina(18) just outside the virgin plaboy. In the pelvis it is located between the urethra(9) and the bladder(6) front and rectum(17) back (Fig). From all sides the vagina enveloped okolovrusno fiber. The vaginal walls consist of three layers of muscle, connective and epithelial. The epithelium of the vagina - layered flat, have a tendency to keratinization. Vagina abundantly krovosnabjaemah system uterine and private parts of the arteries. Many of Vienna formed around the vagina venous plexus, the blood which flows in a system of internal iliac vein. Lymph from the vagina flowing in the inguinal lymph nodes and in lymph nodes wide ligament of the uterus, and sacral iliac. Innerviruetsya vagina nerves originating from both nerve. The vaginal mucosa glands does not contain. The contents of the vagina is formed due to extravasation of the capillaries. To this the specimens may be the secret of cervical and uterine glands, exfoliating cells of the vaginal epithelium and bacterial flora. The content and character of cellular elements in the vaginal content, it is possible to make representation about ovarian hormonal activity.
In women of childbearing age Cytology PAP test (colorformat) in the middle of the menstrual cycle are found in the cells of the vaginal epithelium, with polygonal shape, large size, a small compact nucleus - fourth reaction colpocytology. In the phase of growth and maturation of ovarian follicle and in phase yellow body in the vaginal content prevail cells, having smaller and larger core - third reaction colpocytology. The girls before puberty and women of old age in the vaginal content is dominated by small, so-called atrophic cells with large nuclei and a small number of protoplasm is the first or the second reaction of colpocytology.
Bacterial flora content vagina diverse. Depending on its structure there are four degrees of purity vaginal contents. When the first degree of purity reaction content vagina sour, leukocytes are missing, vaginal Bacillus a significant amount of pathogenic microbes no; in the second degree of purity appear as a separate cells, vaginal Bacillus in moderation, of pathogenic microbes in small numbers; in the third degree of cleanliness has considerable quantity of leukocytes, dominated by pathogenic flora, vaginal sticks unit; at the fourth degree of purity in the content of the vagina many leukocytes, pathogenic flora.
Pathology. Malformations vagina - see Giatreia.
Damage to the vagina arise mainly during childbirth, rarely due to careless manipulation operations (the imposition of forceps and other). Open injuries of the vagina can be observed in case of accidents, usually combined with the trauma to the perineum. Surgical treatment (see Colpoperineorrhaphy).
Of the diseases of the vagina, most frequent inflammation its mucosa - colpitis (see).
From benign tumors of the vagina can develop warts, polyps, fibroids. Clinically benign tumors and retention cysts vagina apparent only when reach large sizes; more often they are found during routine gynecological examination. The only surgical treatment.
Malignant tumors of the vagina appear rich Belami mixed with blood or bleeding acyclic problems arising in the disintegration of a tumour. During the inspection and palpation encounter dense hilly or polypoid with ulcerations of education that bleed easily. The prognosis depends on the location of the tumor and the stage of the disease. Treatment complex (surgery and radiotherapy). If a tumor need a woman to immediately send to the specialist-gynecologist.
Operations on the vagina - see Colpopexy, Colpopoiesis, Colpotomy.