Valeriana medicinal
Fig. 12. Valeriana medicinal (bottom - rhizome with roots, the lower part of the stem and basal leaf).

Valerian (Valeriana) - rod biennial and perennial herbaceous plants in the family valerianovyh (Valerianaceae). In USSR almost ubiquitous Valerian (Valeriana officinalis). Using collected in autumn, peeled, washed and dried rhizomes and roots of Valerian. Valerian preparations used as sedatives in nervous agitation, insomnia, nervousness cardiovascular system; they have and inflammatory properties. In the honey. practice to use: tincture of Valerian root (Inf. radicis Valerianae) based 6-10 g root at 180 to 200 ml of water, appoint 1 table. L. 3-4 times a day; Valerian tincture (Tinctura Valerianae) and Valerian tincture essential (Tinctura Valerianae aetherea), appoint 20-30 drops per reception 3-4 times a day; Valerian extract thick (Extractum Valerianae spissum) applied pills 0.04-0.05 g per reception. Cm. also Sedatives.
Titled Valeriana medicinal United several types of Valerian. They all have medicinal value. But a lot of this plant and useless counterparts. Therefore, it is important to remember what it looks like Valerian drug.
Inflorescence sweet pale pink flowers raise up a long stalk. From above he furrowed, inside is hollow. Summer Cup flowers invisible, they are wrapped inside, but as soon as fruits ripen, they unfold desyatiletiyami Cirrus Pappus. Major wind will pick up seeds-parasutisti and will suffer from the mother plant.
In the first year of life develop only the socket of radical leaves, in the second year stems grow, plants bloom.
Botanists have wondered long abilities Valerian to adapt to a variety of habitats. It grows mostly in raw and even swamped forest glades and edges, floodplains, between bushes, on damp meadows and hillsides, the feather-grass steppes, on burned and pine forests, high in the mountains and even in the tundra. Not only in Kamchatka, Chukotka, the Crimea and in Karelia. Although Valerian so widespread, this valuable plants are not enough. That's why you should care about the resumption thickets Valerian: rhizomes dig, when the fruits of overflights, but stems from guards have left, otherwise it is difficult to know the plant.
Healing from Valerian not above-ground and underground parts of plants: rhizome and roots. It is very important to know their distinctive properties. Freshly dug rhizomes light, slightly yellowish. At drying their color is changed. They become dark brown. And interestingly, changing not only the color: the fresh roots Valerian smell is not very pleasant, typical of many roots and dried, they become very fragrant, with inherent odour.
Inexperienced collectors sometimes confused Valerian drug with another, which has no medicinal value, but often grows together, " Valerian zelenolistnoe. The plant is smaller, odourless, outwardly little like his other valuable relative - Valerian businessto.
Happens to get in the collection and poisonous roots Lastovka drug. Any flowers or leaves nastaveni nothing to do with Valerian has not, and the root of his lighter and does not smell it. But I will roots Lastovka next to Valerian, and they will absorb odor, and then misled collectors.
Sometimes among drug roots can be very poisonous roots chemeritsy Lobelia. Be attentive! The rhizomes chemeritsy Lobelia light solovinye adventitious roots.
And leaves, and flowers, and pink flowers are very similar to Valerian drug her double - pescannik konoplevy. To distinguish them by root, posconnika he is strong, cylindrical.
Dug out in autumn Valerian rhizomes washed in baskets, podkalyvayut 2 to 3 days on the air, spreading a layer of 15 cm, and then scatter and dry in a shade. The slower drying, the more persistent Valerian smell will be at the roots.
Valerian has a calming effect on the nervous system. Her drugs used in nervous excitement, insomnia, nervousness cardiovascular system, at spasms of the gastrointestinal tract and other diseases.
Although Valeriana medicinal grows almost all over our country, thickets are rare. Violate the rules of collection of collectors of raw materials: dig out the roots, when Valerian still blossoms, then, can the plant be renewed from seeds. For plant conservation, prevention of the depletion of the need to harvest Valerian only after ripening seeds and not more than once in 2 years. Fossa after digging out the roots have to go to sleep. Leave 1 - 2 plants for about 5 to 10 m2. To collect the seeds. Planted them in nature, grow a garden, then to re-planting in the places where Valerian habitually growing.
Seeds Valerian ripen from June to September, and in early July, it is already possible to sow the first ripe seeds to fall to get a good seedlings. Sow the seeds in the grooves of a depth of 1 to 1.5 see They can not be repaired or sprinkle with humus. The distance between the grooves - 12 -15 see 10-15 days sprouts appear. Permanent seedlings are planted in late September - early October (when they will have 3-5 leaves) in rows with a distance of 45 cm; 20 cm must be left between the plants. The ground for planting prepared in advance and fertilized with manure or compost 4 kg per 1 m2. Propose and mineral fertilizers (better NPK) 20-30 grams per 1 m2. On acidic soil need to make another lime.
If we grow Valerian from seeds to sow them, you can either early in spring or in summer or in winter.
Valerian well tolerates shade, because in nature it grows under the shadow of the bushes and trees. Rhizomes it has to dig in the second year after planting. They are more powerful, appearing in the summer flower stalks cut. Usually wild Valerian root length - 5 cm and have grown in the garden - 15 see
For seeds leave the best plants abundantly watering, feed fertilizers. Valerian responds well to organic and mineral fertilizers. As the seeds of Valerian not ripen at the same time, it is important to have time to collect them until crumble. For this flower stalks are cut even yellowish-green, dried under a canopy and are threshed.