Vanadium (Vanadium), V,is a chemical element V of groups of periodic system of D. I. Mendeleev. Serial number 23. Atomic weight 50,942. A silvery-grey color, temperature melting 1900 degrees, the density at temperature of 15 degrees 6,11. Is used in metallurgy for production of alloyed steels, as additives to cast irons, in alloys with copper, gold, rubber, ceramics and chemical industry. The metal itself does not possess toxic properties. Toxic vanadium pentoxide, chlorides, vanadates; less toxic vanadium trioxide.
Vanadium pentoxide - red-yellow powder, temperature melting 670 degrees. Apply for ferrovanadium production, as a catalyst, the developer (in pictures), reagent. Vanadium trioxide black crystals, temperature melting 1970°, used in the textile industry as prograsses.
Vanadium compounds have a variety of effects on the body, causing changes in the blood, organs of respiration, nervous system, metabolism, inflammatory and allergic skin.
Poisoning. Acute poisoning dust of vanadium compounds are characterized by the emergence of a cough, runny nose, dry throat, substernal pain. Later 6-24 hours joins strong shortness of breath, depression.
Chronic poisoning dust of vanadium compounds are characterized by symptoms of conjunctivitis, rhinitis, bronchitis (cough at first dry, and then with sputum, shortness of breath, chest pain), in severe cases, can lead to pulmonary bleeding, jade with hematuria, albuminuria.
The dust of vanadium compounds on the skin accompanied by a rash on the legs and face and appearance of eczema. Eczema can have allergic nature.
First aid at acute poisoning: to speed up the withdrawal of vanadium from the gastrointestinal tract - drink plenty of water, ascorbic acid, an antidote against metals (see Poisoning), unitiol (5 ml of 5% solution intramuscularly 2-3 times a day).
Prevention of poisoning compounds vanadium should proceed in the direction of prevention of air pollution from industrial premises with dust and smoke of vanadium compounds by means of the installation of local exhaust ventilation, mechanization and sealing of production processes. Workers should be provided with a respirator "Lepestok", a gas mask with aerosol filter. The necessary preliminary and periodic medical examinations employed 1 year, x-ray examination once every 2 years. MAC vanadium pentoxide (aerosol-condensing) - 0.1 mg/m3; vanadium pentoxide (aerosol grinding) 0.5 mg/m3; vanadium trioxide - 0.5 mg/m3.