There are baths in common is immersed in water the whole body of the patient to the level of the nipple or axillary hollows (Fig. 1); local - for one and two hands (Fig. 2)foot (Fig. 3), sessile (Fig. 4) and the semi - water in the tub reach the level of the navel of the patient. Depending on the water temperature baths are cold (below 20 degrees), cool (20-33 degrees), warm (37-39 degrees), hot (40 and above), the so-called indifferent temperature (34-36 degrees); gradually increase the temperature, which can be local (bath on Hauffe with water temperature of 36 - 37 degrees to 40-45 degrees; Fig. 5) and General (from 30 to 37 degrees to 42-43 degrees); contrast - patient alternately immersed in a bath of hot (38-42 degrees) and cold (10-24 degrees) water (Fig. 7). Used and combined bath when the action baths combine with the effects of other physical factors. These include hydroelectric General and four-chamber baths (Fig.6), vortex, vibrating baths, underwater intestinal lavage (see), underwater shower-massage (see), the semi-with rubbing and dousing (Fig. 9). The composition of baths are distinguished from fresh water, mineral (hydrogen sulphide, chloride sodium, iodine-bromine and radon). Natural mineral baths are also sea baths and water lake (estuary). In addition, prepare gas baths - carbonic, oxygen, nitrogen, pearl; aromatic pine, sage and others; drug with potassium permanganate, sodium bicarbonate (baking soda), starch, turpentine, mustard, etc.
Mechanism of physiological effects of freshwater baths due to the effect of temperature and mechanical (hydrostatic pressure) stimuli. When you receive the mineral baths, to the action of these stimuli joins the action of dissolved chemicals to the receptors of the skin, and gaseous substances (carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide and other), in addition, and to the receptors of blood vessels and internal organs. The influence of mineral and gas baths on the organism more active than fresh.
Fresh bath temperature 36-34 grades duration 10-15 minutes provides a refreshing and invigorating effect; 15-20 minutes - a soothing effect, improves sleep. Cool baths tone cardiovascular, stimulate the nervous system and improve the metabolism. Indications for use of the baths of fresh water of different temperature - see Hydrotherapy.
Mineral baths. Natural mineral baths are applied on corresponding resorts and in the local Spa facilities (see Balneotherapy). Seaside resorts use natural sea baths. In urban baths are mineral baths, prigotovlennye by dissolving in fresh water related chemical ingredients. For preparation of sodium chloride (salt or sea) baths table (lake or sea salt in the amount from 10 to 40 g on 1 l of water, sometimes more, fill in a special sieve, which is placed in the bath under a jet of hot water (70 degrees and above). As the dissolved salts in the tub add cold water to the assigned temperature (37-35 degrees). Such baths duration of 12-15 minutes are taken in 1 or 2 days in a row with a break on day 3. The course of treatment 12-15 procedures.
For making hydrogen sulfide baths of different concentrations in freshwater dissolve as salts of sodium bicarbonate (baking soda), technical sodium sulfide, and the acid - technical hydrochloric acid (the method is based on the principle of displacement H2 and C02 of salts acid). For making baths concentration of 100 mg/l) dissolved in 200 l of water 27 grams of sodium bicarbonate, 296 ml solution of sodium sulphide (16%) and 120 ml of hydrochloric acid (share 1,14) (recipe Dan per alkalinity of water equal to 4.1 mEq). Hydrogen sulfide baths with temperature of 35-37 degrees of C duration of 8-12 minutes are taken in 1 or 2 days in a row with the rest on the 3rd day. The course of treatment 12-15 procedures.
For the preparation of iodine-bromine baths in 1 l of water dissolve 100 g of sodium iodide and 250 grams of potassium bromide. The solution is placed in a dark bottle. In a bath filled with 200 l water to the required temperature, dissolving in it 2 kg sodium (lake or sea salt. This water is poured 100 ml of the solution prepared from dark flask. Bath temperature 37-35 grades duration 10-12-15 minutes are taken in 1 or 2 days in a row with the rest on the 3rd day. The course of treatment 15 to 20 baths.
Radon baths made of radon, the source of which are the salts of radium. The drug contained in hermetically closed glass vessel (the so-called bubbler), which is stored in a lead container. Formed in the bubbler radioactive gasradon) is transferred to the bottle with water, which is formed (by shaking or vibration) a concentrated solution of radon. Last poured into portions bottles with capacity of 100 ml for making baths with a concentration of 100, 200, 300 units of Mahe, etc. In the preparation of radon baths concentrated aqueous solution of radon from the bottle through the Siphon release on the bottom of the tub, pre-filled with water to the required temperature (Fig. 8), while the water in the tub gently but thoroughly mix. Radon baths temperature 34-36 grades duration 10-15-20 minutes daily basis or every day. The course of treatment 15 to 20 baths.
Gas baths (carbon dioxide, oxygen, nitrogen, pearl) prepare saturation poured into the bath (1/3) hot (temperature of 60-70 degrees) water relevant gas from a cylinder [through the gas column (Fig. 10) or devices saturation - EN-7 (Fig. Or an-8 (Fig. 12) under pressure from 1.5 to 3 ATM.
Carbon dioxide baths , designate a day, temperature 35-32°, duration 7-15 minutes on the course of treatment is 10-15 procedures; oxygen and nitrogen in a day or daily, t 36-34°, duration 10-15-20 minutes, treatment of 12-20 procedures. Pearl baths prepare, pumping the air under pressure 0.5-1.5 ATM with the help of the compressor, through a special grille of metal tubes with small holes, put on the bottom of the tub with water temperature 36-34 degrees (Fig. 13). They are used every day or two, with a duration of 15 minutes, treatment 12-15 procedures.
The mechanism of action of artificially made baths - see Hydrotherapy.
Indications and contraindications to the appointment of artificially made baths are the same as for baths with natural mineral water and gas (see Balneotherapy).

  • Medicinal baths
  • Baths for children