Varicella (chickenpox)

chickenpoxChicken pox chicken pox (varicella) is an infectious disease characterized by fever and vezikuleznaya (bubble) rash. Most often occurs in young children. The causative agent of varicella is filterable virus, pathogenic for humans. The varicella-zoster virus in its properties close to the pathogen herpes zoster (see Herpes). Children who have had chickenpox, immune herpes zoster. In the environment of the varicella-zoster virus dies within a few hours.
Entrance gate of the infection mucous membrane of the upper respiratory tract. The source of infection is a sick to 5-th day since the last fresh elements rash. The chickenpox infection occurs by airborne droplets. Transmission through things and third parties are not observed. Susceptibility to chickenpox is very high. Immunity for life.
The incubation period is on average 14 days (11-21 day). Prodromal phenomena are weak: General malaise, low grade fever, sometimes crepadona or skarlatinopodobnoy rash. Soon after increase of temperature (38 - 39 degrees) appears typical chickenpox rash first on the face, then on the extremities and trunk. Small pale pink spots quickly turn into papules and vesicles (vesicles), surrounded by a zone of hyperemia and filled with clear content. Vesicles through 1 - 2 days dry, crisp fall away, usually after 1-3 weeks. Precipitation occurs Tacloban within 4-5 days, so on the second day after the onset of the rash can see the members in all stages of development. At the end of the period rash temperature drops to normal.
Complications of varicella are relatively rare. On mucous membranes in place lesions are formed erosion and sores. When the eruption of vesicles on the cornea develops keratitis, with the defeat mucous membrane of the larynx - laryngitis. The accession of secondary infection may lead to the development phlegmon, abscesses, faces, stomatitis, otitis, lymphadenitis, bronchopneumonia. The most rare complications include focal jade, serous synovitis, encephalitis and serous meningitis. Described isolated cases of specific damage internal organs: lungs, liver, kidneys and spleen.
Differential diagnostics is carried out with smallpox, scrofulous and with scarlet fever. Unlike chickenpox, when smallpox prodromal period is accompanied by a significant increase in the temperature and severe pain in the rump. In the period rash has been decreasing temperature. The rash elements dense, located deep in the skin, multi-chamber, have an impression.
Scrofulous may be accompanied by the formation of bubbles on top of the papules, rash localized primarily on the lower back, buttocks, back surface of extremities and accompanied by severe itching. The long at normal temperature.
In the case of a rash skarlatinopodobnoy rash varicella scarlet fever exclude the absence of angina, typical changes of language and pallor naso-lip triangle.
Children, the sick with chickenpox, the special treatment is not required, it is only necessary to protect the child from a secondary infection. If there is itching should not be allowed brushing, you need to trim nails, to ease the itch by wetting the skin with water and vinegar and alcohol. Recommended lubrication bubbles 1% alcohol solution brilliant green or concentrated solution of potassium permanganate.
Complications of varicella are prescribed antibiotics and sulfa drugs.
Because the gain popularity chickenpox is very high, patients should be immediately isolated and contact with them other children stopped. Ill child is contagious already 1-2 days before the beginning of the visible disease. The greatest gain popularity falls on the first 5 days of illness. Isolation of the patient ends in 5 days after the last fresh element rash. Children under 7 years of age who have been in contact with people with chicken pox, subject to separation from the 11th and 21st day from the moment of contact.