The most important problem of neurosurgery

No other organ in our body does not have such a rich blood supply as the brain. Countless arterial and venous vessels, ranging from the large thickness of 5-6 mm, to the dense network invisible to the naked eye capillaries, penetrates the brain in all directions.
This is illustrated by the following figures. The weight of the human brain is on average only 2% of body weight. However, the brain constantly, throughout life, gets 15 - 20 percent of blood pumped by the heart into the aorta with each contraction, about liters of blood per minute. So much blood flow provides the most important condition for the normal functioning of the brain - the constant supply of his more oxygen.
The brain is like a sponge, filled with blood. Therefore, almost every operation that required a cut of brain tissue to remove the tumor, abscess, metal fragments, and so on, is associated with risk of bleeding. Techniques and methods to prevent and stop bleeding is the most important problem of neurosurgery.
Imagine that the surgeon made the incision of the brain found in the depth of his tumor and started to remove it. Naturally, this damaged blood vessels coming from the brain in the tumor tissue. Bleeding from the smallest vessels to stop the relatively easy-to bleeding section make every piece of yellow friable substances. This so-called fibrin sponge, which drastically improves the process of blood clotting.
To stop the bleeding from a larger vessel is not easy. Need a big experience and advanced training accuracy of movements, to fine tweezers rapidly "catch" in the depth of the brain wounds thin artery from which the stream of blood running. When she caught, assistant applies to the tweezers, metal needle, which ends long wire in a sterile white cover. This is an active electrode complex multivalve three-phase lighting apparatus for diathermy, which stands at the operating table. High voltage current instantly "weld" the walls of the vessel, and the bleeding stops.
But you can use another technique. In a special long tool inserted bent at an angle a small piece of silver wire, the so-called clips. A quick movement of the hand surgeon and tapered tool wire from all sides squeezed the bleeding vessel. This piece of silver and will remain forever in the depths of the brain without causing any damage.
In the last time "in service" neurosurgeons we have yet another way to stop bleeding, such fibrin the sponge. This hemostatic, or hemostatic, gauze made of cellulose, gaseous oxidized nitrogen dioxide.
Outwardly, it differs from the usual Marley only yellowish color. In contact with gauze blood proteins quickly rolled up and deposited in loops Marley, form a blood clot. In addition, hemostatic gauze has a very valuable quality - it is fully absorbed into the body. Hemostatic gauze does not cause any irritation of the brain or inflammatory response. Quite a neurosurgeon "spread out" such a piece of gauze on the bleeding surface of the brain or tumor, as the bleeding stops.
However, all the above methods - fibrin sponge, hemostatic gauze, coagulation of the blood vessels, the imposition of clips, despite their absolute value, did not solve the problem entirely stop bleeding during the most complicated brain surgeries.
Creative thought of a person who never settles down there. New and better methods gradually pushed into the background or even supplant the old methods, however good they were.
Sponge and gauze, diathermy clips and still occupy an important place in the Arsenal of neurosurgery. None experienced neurosurgeon begin a complex operation without having them in his possession. However, for two of the last three years in brain surgery has acquired principally new, very valuable method to prevent and stop bleeding. Development of this method was directly linked to the discovery of the so-called ganglioblokirtee substances. What is this substance?
Given the crucial importance of these substances, and this new method for modern neurosurgery, they should be told more.

  • What is ganglioblokatory