Great scientists and fate of physiology

The above brief information about the purpose of separate organs and systems, as well as more detailed data about their work, which constitute the content of further discussions were produced physiology during difficult ancient studies. Inscribed in Golden letters in the history of our science, the names of many scientists. However, two of them gave rise to two epochs in the development of physiology and can be called masters of the luminaries.
The beginning of development of a truly scientific physiology put the famous scientist of the Renaissance William Harvey. He introduced in physiology and became widely promoted as the main method of scientific cognition experiments, i.e. in vivo studies. Before that the main source of knowledge about the body were to scientists of the middle ages books of ancient authorities, based on the external monitoring body, and - in some cases - an autopsy, which would give information about the structure of our body, but not about its activities. Experience, experiment - the era of rapid development of the analysis of physiological processes. After the publication in 1628 book by Harvey science for two and a half centuries has accumulated a lot of information about the work of individual organs. However, used on the initiative of the so-called Harvey acute experiments, or of vivisection (from lat. vivus is alive and sectio - rasseyanie), was rather rude invasion of the researcher in the body. By the end of the experience of the animal was killed. For initial accumulation of the data about the functions of organs and systems. However, information about normal work of the entire organism such analytical direction he could not provide.
A new era in physiology opened in the end of XIX century, Ivan Petrovich Pavlov. His research marked the beginning of the era of synthesis of physiological processes. Pavlov introduced in our science method of so-called chronic experiments, i.e., experiments where an animal by a special pre-operation podgotovlena to research and then can be studied for years without any violations of his life, under normal conditions of existence. If its age has allowed to assemble a mass of separate "bricks" for the building of physiology, Pavlov put them together in an elegant building of our science. He successfully began to build, and the "roof" of his, opening the most important laws of higher work Department of the brain, and with them having very much to decrypt the physiological bases of mental activity. Sechenovsky ideas has begun construction of the "roof", Pavlovian research brilliantly developed them.
A huge contribution to the development of physiology made by other Russian scientists. It is generally recognized. One of the largest foreign physiologists XX century Englishman J.. Barcroft specially noted in the Preface to his main work: "Great is the duty world of physiology of the Russian science".
The last quarter-century is characterized by the newly flourishing analytical direction. Outstanding technology gave into the hands of physiologists subtle methods of study of life processes at the cellular and molecular levels, methods, of which half a century ago it was not necessary to hope for. Accumulated mass of various data on the physiology of microstructures. Today, these data are like one shore physiological flow. On the other shore - synthetic materials physiology, studying the organism as a whole or on the performance of individual organs and systems in the whole organism. Between these two levels of modern physiology and molecular-cellular and organism - as long as there is a gap, bridges still not over. Of course, the time will come when you will accumulate the materials for the construction of bridges. Will a new great scientist, worthy to stand in a row with Harvey and Pavlov, which will connect both banks.
This book is dedicated primarily to the body as the ensemble of functions as a whole. This makes it clear on which side we will mainly be located. The work on this book was begun in anticipation of 1986, exactly fifty years after the death of I. P. Pavlov, the heart of which stopped beating in 1936. Therefore, paying tribute to the great scientist, we will pay his discoveries special attention.