The venipuncture

The venipuncture - puncture the vein to krovoisliania, infusion into a vein medicinal mud, blood transfusion. For venipuncture use needles of different diameters: for bloodletting and blood transfusion needle dufot with the diameter of 1.5 mm, for the taking of a small amount of blood and intravenous injections of drug needles smaller diameter. Slice the needle must have an angle of 45 degrees, which reduces the possibility of a puncture of a vein through.
For venipuncture most convenient subcutaneous veins of the elbow bend, in case of need, hold the puncture smaller vein in the forearm and hand, less frequently, lower leg and foot. In children of early age is usually the venipuncture subcutaneous veins of the scalp.
During venepuncture the patient sits or lies.
During venipuncture veins elbow bend the arm of the patient must be based squarely on the Desk or on the couch with a maximum extension of the elbow, which under it enclose covered with oilcloth firm pillow (Fig). It is easier to functionate well-filled veins. Therefore, before venipuncture block the outflow of blood from a vein a tourniquet on the proximal part of the limbs (such as venipuncture veins of the elbow joint on the shoulder above the elbow bend. Harness should compress the veins, without breaking the flow of blood through the arteries. If the pulse on arteries (such as radiation) weak or not detectable, should harness loosen; if the veins swell and the skin of the extremities below the tourniquet not acquire purple color, tighten the tourniquet tight. For more blood veins can be offered to the patient before the tourniquet several times to compress and decompress the fist or lower down the arm. Harness can apply a few minutes before venepuncture.
Puncture is performed in conditions of asepsis. Rules sterilization of needles and syringes - see Sterilization. The skin before venipuncture treated with alcohol, limb (e.g., shoulder and forearm) close sterile cloth with a hole on the site of venipuncture. During treatment ends of the fingers of the left hand explore Vienna and choose the less moving and well-filled. The skin is pulled in order to capture Vienna.
Puncture the vein can be made in two installments and quick. Holding the needle right hand cut up parallel to the proposed Vienna and at an acute angle to the skin, pierce the skin near Vienna and parallel to it, then the side puncture the vein; this raises the feeling of falling into emptiness. If the needle in Vienna, from cannulas will be blood; if there is no blood, not removing the needle should be repeated puncture the vein. As only the tip of the needle will be blood, we want to promote a needle in a few millimetres and fix it in place with the right hand, the needle is accidentally released from Vienna. One-stage method venepuncture requires great skill. Thus hold the needle cut down and immediately pierce the skin over the vein, and the wall of the vein. Once in the vein needle cant parallel to the skin, then press to her and a little advance. The venipuncture for bloodletting produce needle, which through the cannula is attached rubber tube; other end of the tube put into a graduated container. For taking blood for analysis to the tip of the needle under a stream of blood fills in a test tube. After krovoisliania first remove the harness, and then a quick movement remove the needle, puncture site grease alcohol solution of iodine, press to it a sterile tampon and ask the patient (by vein puncture of the elbow bend to bend the arm in the elbow joint and hold it in that position for 1-2 minutes If puncture was performed with a needle dufot, you put crowding dry sterile dressing. After the puncture veins other areas (forearms, hands, legs, feet) also impose crowding sterile bandage.
The venipuncture for injections are produced by the same rules, but the needle, put on a syringe with a medical solution. Typing a needle in a vein, slightly having a piston. The flow of blood in the syringe shows that the venipuncture was correct. Then remove the harness and slowly introduce a solution into a vein. Upon termination infusion quickly remove the needle, then act as if venipunctures for krovoisliania.
Complications venepuncture. 1. Ineffective puncture with the formation of hematoma due to a puncture both walls of the veins (often using a thin needle long cut). 2. Venepuncture, especially repeated, and with violation of the rules of reimbursement, can lead to the formation of a blood clot and thrombophlebitis(see).