Poisonous animals

Poisonous animals are characterized by continuous or intermittent presence in their body substances that are toxic to animals of other species. Besides poisonous animals such in various reasons can be individuals harmless species. Different species may respond differently to the same toxic substance that indicates the relative nature of toxicity of those or other poisonous animals. The severity of poisoning depends on the dose of the poison, introduced into the body, and place of its receipt. The smaller blood vessels at the site of lesion, the weaker and more slowly sucked the poison. In addition, the severity of the damage depends on the specific properties amazed at the size of his body, of age. Produced by poisonous animals poisons are characterized by the value of toxic or lethal dose for 1 kg of weight of a person or animal. Known cases idiosyncrasies or, on the contrary, innate or acquired immune to the poison, in particular after successfully transferred poisoning.
Most poisonous animals have special poisonous bodies, some poisonous only parts of the body. Poisonous organs can occur either by modification of the bodies, usually existing in this group of animals (e.g. salivary gland insect, different poison bite), or appear in the process of phylogenesis poisonous animals as "novopoliana" (for example, poisonous glands Scorpions). These bodies are composed of poisonous glands that produce the poison, and the cutting instrument facilitating contact with the poison into the thickness of the tissues and the blood of the sacrifice. Many poisonous animals have venom glands, but no offensive devices (for example, ants with stings and reduced sting). In this regard, talk about armed and unarmed poisonous animals.

Fig. 1. Stinging cells of Hydra, the right - cell batteries in a discharged state: 1 - nidocin; 2 - capsule; 3 - support bars; 4 - core; 5 - spiral thread in the capsule.
Fig. 2. The wound in the leg when stepped on lying at the bottom of the fish, with a poisonous thorn on the tail.
the verrucosa
Fig. 3. The verrucosa (Synanceia verrucosa).

Already some of the simplest - infusoria is laid in the cortical layer of the protoplasm of triocity, "shot" at the irritation and attacking a victim. For coelenterates (Hydra, sea anemones, jellyfish and other) are common nettle, or stinging cells embedded in the ectoderm (Fig. 1). In this cell there secretory part that produces a poisonous substance, and the capsule with screwed inside spiral thread that if irritation from outside thrown out and bites my covers touched coelenterates the animal organism "burning" and temporarily paralyzing him. Among coelenterates especially poisonous Visalia (Physalia physalis), living in the tropical seas, poisonous capsules which contain toxic substances - talissin, congestion and hypnotisin. Vitalii cause severe skin burns person. Sea wasp (Chironex fleckeri)that can be found near the coast of Australia (Queensland), in calm weather, according to local residents, for children bathing in the ocean, more dangerous than sharks. In contact with tentacles marine Stingers death occurs within minutes. Burns caused by jellyfish found within the USSR, usually not stronger burns nettle. The exception is the small jellyfish brestovick (Goneonemus vertens vertens), the body which has the shape of a flattened bells diameter of 3-4 cm; at the edges of the animal's body hanging 70-80 tentacles, equipped with stinging cells. A large number of krestovnikov in some years, the drive hitherward heavy wind from the sea of Japan to the coast in the region of Vladivostok. Poison their causes pain, as if the sting; in a few minutes you receive erythema, often with blisters and point hemorrhages. 10-20 minutes develops weakness, there diarrhoeal disorders, dry cough, shortness of breath, pain in muscles and joints. In severe cases, there are fever, expiratory dyspnoea, vomiting, diarrhea, severe headache and pain in the lower back and legs, severe nervous excitement, arrhythmia. Cases of death of the victims. For the treatment recommended intravenous 1-2 times a day for 10 ml of 0.25 - 0.5% solution novokaina and 15-20 ml of 40% glucose solution, diphenhydramine 0.03-0.05 g 3 times a day; with bronchospasm using ephedrine or adrenaline, itching of the skin - 10% ointment with benzocaine.
Multicellular saccular cancer with special sting have Scorpions (FAM. Buthidae and Chactidae). Their thin sadgebrush (tail) ends chitin bubble (vials), inside of which there are two poisonous glands opening in acute solid curved sting. The Scorpion venom paralyzes the nerves of the respiratory muscles, like the poison of Cobra. Man shot Scorpion causes pain in the place of damage, swelling, hyperemia and the emergence of bubbles with serous content. Among General toxic violations of the victim is dominated by changes in the Central and autonomic nervous system. Receive frequency and difficulty breathing, tachycardia, sweating, salivation. During treatment advised to enter under the skin in the interscapular region 20-60 ml of anti-black widow serum. Quickly relieve the symptoms of intoxication injection of atropine, an intravenous infusion of glucose, potassium chloride; in severe General condition injection camphor, koratala, caffeine; recommended to drink plenty of water, warm.
In many animals, poisonous glands associated with mouthparts that make up their offensive part (jaw or hypopharynx arthropods). Especially a lot of poisonous animals among arthropods. Spiders are two tubular poisonous glands that lie in the cephalothorax or in a basic segment of the upper jaw (the chelicerae). Last over movable sharp claw with a hole duct poisonous glands, poison vypuskaetsya of the glands under pressure from powerful muscle membrane. Very toxic for human karakurt (Lathrodectus tredecimguttatus), which is found in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Turkmenistan), Dagestan, Moldova, Crimea and other Female black widow about 1 cm long. In some years, karakurt breeds in large amounts (in each square meter of the field or steppes you can find a few spiders). Their bites cause severe local reaction (gangrenous tissue destruction), and sometimes severe poisoning deaths. Fatal poisoning is characterized by replacing the following phases: agitation, ataxia, and tonic clonic convulsions, paralysis, coma. Animal death happens when events coma, respiratory depression. Given the rapid absorption of the poison, treatment should be promptly. Under the skin type 30-70 ml specific anti-black widow serum; in severe intoxication serum slowly injected into the vein. Good action has intravenous injection of 10 ml of 10% of magnesium sulfate. In General critical phenomena injected 5 to 10 ml of 1% solution novokaina, 1 ml of 1% solution of morphine under the skin, 1 ml of 1% solution of morphine; for heart disorders injection kordiamin, camphor, strofantina (0.5 ml of 0.05% solution intravenously).
South Russian tarantula (Trochosa singoriensis) - hairy spider 3-4 cm long, the body is yellow-brown with black pattern. Bite in the temperate climate is not dangerous, is only caused by inflammation at the site of the bite and swelling.
To poisonous animals also referred phalanges (Bihor, saluga), but without sufficient grounds. Bite their powerful chelicerae painful, but no toxic organs from limbs not. If there are complications from the bite, the result of entering into the market of secondary infection.
From insects (see) to poisonous animals can be considered as one of many types: lice, bedbugs, in particular bed bugs, mosquitoes, fleas, mosquitoes, gnats, flies, zhigalki, wasps and other Sensitivity to insect bites different, when you bites may develop allergies (see). Most hard transferred injection wasp stings, especially the Central Asian spring (Vespa crabro). The degree of intoxication varies from small inflammation to the death of the victim from the rapidly developing shock. Best anti therapeutic effect provides a combination of preparations of ephedrine (or adrenalin), Dimedrol and amidopirina. A rash that appeared after the bite, kupeeroout fenamina.
Of vertebrates, the highest toxicity have a snake (see). Aid for poisoning snake poison - see Antidote. To poisonous to animals with stings, but without damaging the device are toads, salamanders and newts. Poisonous secret of them may act on the skin of the person, mucous membranes, the respiratory organs and smell.
The poisonous animals without special poisonous devices toxic properties have some tissue or excretory products (see Fish). Manifestations of toxicity fish are different; some cause poisoning injections barbed fins (spiny fish - Acanthopterygii, SEM. skorenovac - Scorpaenidae and other) or special spikes on its tail (stingrays, SEM. Trygonidae)on the Gill cover (dragon fish, SEM. Trachinidae). These fish have armed poisonous bodies - poisonous glands associated with pricking part poisonous apparatus. Such fish per person is not actively attack, but it hurt him to touch them.
The stingrays [Trygon pastinaca (Black sea), So akajei] are on the tail powerful serrated sides thorn with two longitudinal grooves, which are filled with clusters of highly developed unicellular skin glands; the secret of them gets into the wound inflicted by the tail spine. In the Pacific ocean off the coast of Asia circulated giant hvostokol (Urolophoides giganteus) with the upper tail thorn 27 cm long and lower - 28 cm (Fig. 2). High toxicity has the verrucosa (Synanceia verrucosa, SEM. skorenovac). It lives in the Red sea near the shores of Java, in the archipelago of Tahiti. Bare skin of fish covered with warts and sheet appendages of the skin, the face turned upwards (Fig. 3). Poisonous apparatus consists of 11 to 12 hard rays front of the spinal cord, 1-2 rays side and 3 rays anal fin. All rays are equipped with poisonous glands. The rays of the dorsal and anal fins are connected by a membrane, which incorporated the mucous glands. The rays have an elongated Salobrena shape, thick at the base, but gradually narrowed towards the top. The longest rays reach 45-50 mm Shortly after the injection in the place of the injury occurs a sharp pain, appear redness, and swelling. Fever and lymphangitis begin after 5-7 minutes after the injury caused to fish. Intoxication increases during the first 6 to 8 hours, and a day all phenomena poisoning usually start to go down. Sometimes in the same place inoculation of poisonous area of necrosis in diameter 2-5 mm When released into the wound pathogens develop abscesses and even phlegmon. Because the poison is absorbed quickly, the tourniquet is often recommended when injections are not only useful, but also has suffered harm. Useful blocking primary depo poison within the first 10-15 minutes solution of Novocain. Later chip produce further from the place of injured rays fish. Blocking novocaine eases pain phenomena and prevents the development of intoxication. Shows the use of pain relievers: novocaine, procaine or subcutaneous morphine. Specific therapeutic serum is not received. Injections rays stonefish in most cases do not lead to fatal poisoning, although described several cases of death. For protection of injections fishermen wear special shoes and disassembly of the catch is produced in a special canvas gloves. When cleaning the fish is recommended carefully cut the barbed fins. When fishing rod should not be missed hands out of water wriggling fish. Underwater hunters-scuba divers, specifically hunting for verrucosa, be careful.
In our fauna is similar toxic properties (but weak) have sea ruff (Scorpaena porcus) and sea dragon (Trachinus draco), both found in the Black sea.

Poisonous animals - animals that belong to various systematic groups, but have one common feature - continuously or periodically include in the body of substances that are toxic to animals of other species. Reaction to the same poison in different individuals varied, indicating the relative toxicity of those or other poisonous animals. The degree of intoxication depends on the dose and the introduction of the poison, from the total size of the body, from the age of the victim, and so on Known cases of increased or decreased sensitivity - immunity congenital or acquired after successfully transferred poisoning. Most poisonous animals has poisonous bodies, some separate parts of the body, consisting of glands that produce the poison, and the cutting instrument for introducing the poison into the tissues of the victim; the number of venomous animals has only glands and has no sting (for example, ants). Many of coelenterates (Hydra, sea anemones, jellyfish) have nettle, or stinging cells, throwing out the spiral strands of poison that stick into the covers of the animal, "burning" it and temporarily paralyzing. The poison of hydromedusa Vitalii (Fig. 1) contains talissin and other substances. Burns caused by jellyfish found in the seas of the USSR, not stronger burns nettle. The exception is a small (3-4 cm in diameter) Medusa the garden spider (Fig. 2)living in the coastal waters of the Amur Bay near Vladivostok. The poison of this jellyfish causes severe burns, General weakness, disorder of the bowel, cough, shortness of breath, muscle pain; severe cases joins vomiting, pain in the extremities, nervous excitement. Cases of death of the victim. Recommended intravenous 0.25-0.5% novokaina solution 1-2 times a day for 10 ml and 15 - 20 ml 40% glucose solution, give diphenhydramine 0.03-0.05 g 3 times a day; with a spasm of the bronchi impose 5% solution of ephedrine subcutaneously - 0.5 ml, itching of the skin -10% ointment with benzocaine.

hydromedusa Visalia
Fig. 1. Hydromedusa Visalia; bottom right stinging cells; 1 - in a dormant condition; 2 - with vystelennyh stinging thread.
Medusa the garden spider
Fig. 2. Medusa the garden spider: 1 - oral proboscis; 2 - sex gland; 3 - stinging capsule with vystelennyh thread.
Fig. 3. Scorpion. At the left top of the tail segment with Shalom (2) and stings (1).
Fig. 4. The female black widow; right - poisonous glands (1) and hooks helitser - upper jaws (2).
Fig. 5. South Russian tarantula.

Scorpions (Fig. 3) the poison gland is located at the end vzduchem the segment of sadgebrush (tail), which has entirely covering the needle. This body of attack and protection. The Scorpion venom causes painful swelling; for man is not fatal. Treatment: injected subcutaneously consistently ergotoxin (ergs) and atropine; in severe swelling recommended around the lesion 5-10 ml of 2% solution novokaina and warmer. With the emergence of bubbles in the affected area - ointment treatment bandages. As a rule, 2-3 days all effects are. In the tropics there are known cases of death after being bitten by a local species of Scorpions.
Many poisonous animals poisonous glands directly connected with mouthparts, such as the black widow spider female has a poisonous plant that consists of two glands that lie in the cephalothorax and ending with the claw (Fig. 4)through which the poison gets into the wound at the bite location. The venom of the Latrodectus living in Central Asia, Dagestan, Moldova, Crimea and other places causes severe local reaction (pain, later necrosis) and total poisoning, as manifested by agitation, ataxia, convulsions, partial paralysis, then comes coma, ending sometimes death. Given the rapid absorption of the poison, the treatment should be started as early as possible. The most effective tool - anti-black widow serum (produced Tashkent bacteriological Institute), which is injected subcutaneously (30-70 ml), with severe poisoning - in Vienna. Now also the injection of 10 ml of 10% of magnesium sulfate to 5-10 ml of 1% solution novokaina, 1 ml of 1% solution of morphine. 1 ml of 1% solution of morphine. P. I. Marikovsky suggested searing bitten place a burning head of a match not later than two minutes after the bite. Not had time to absorb the poison destroyed by heating. This method is irreplaceable in the absence of medical care. Bite South of a tarantula spider length of 3-4 cm Fig. 5) not dangerous, you receive only the inflammation and swelling at the bite site. It is recommended to grease the location of the bite and ammonia, to put a compress.

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