Varicella (chickenpox)

Varicella (chickenpox) has nothing to do with his "namesake" - smallpox, although its manifestations sometimes they may be similar. Varicella is one of the most infectious lung diseases, so-called small infections. However, it would be wrong to assume that since chickenpox is "little trouble", and deserves minor attention. First, occasionally in some children it may be difficult and accompanied by serious complications. Secondly, it is extremely widespread: it perebolet almost every child under the age of 7-10 years. Chickenpox with great ease distributed in institutions, causing the emergence of a significant epidemic outbreaks. Isolation of patients and children, used to associate with them, many complicates the work of these institutions, the mothers of these children are often forced to temporarily leave the work. In a word, from "minor illness" is a lot of trouble.
After infection and before occurrence of the first signs of chickenpox passes the incubation period of the disease lasts for about two weeks; sometimes it reduced to 11 days or longer to 21 days.
The onset of the disease is characterized by the appearance of a typical vetrennay rash and small or moderate increase in temperature. The rash is the main manifestation of the disease. It occurs randomly on the face, scalp, trunk and extremities. First, the rash is a small pink or pale-red nodules that quickly, within a few hours, turn into the bubbles in size from a pinhead to pea. They quickly after about 1-2 days thereafter; in their place are formed flat brown crust, disappearing after 1-3 weeks. After the falling away crusts unlike smallpox, as a rule, the scars remain. As vetrenoe precipitation occurs simultaneously, but how would strokes with intervals of 1-2 days, in the midst of the disease on the skin are found its elements at different stages of development (nodules, blisters, peel).
Some patients precipitation is observed in the mucous membranes of the mouth, nose, throat, larynx, genital organs, etc. Appeared here bubbles quickly turn into surface painful sores that in a few days pogibayut.
Temperature rise varicella often coincides with the appearance of the rash. The temperature in most cases is low and only about one third of the cases is above 38 degrees. Sometimes, however, with abundant precipitation she reaches 39 degrees and more. The patient sleep disturbance, decreases appetite, he becomes irritable and cranky. All these phenomena are more pronounced with abundant rash. On 3-4-5 day simultaneously with the drying rash occurs fall of temperature and the General condition of the patient improves.
The abundance of rash and severity of common manifestations when chickenpox vary widely. In some children, the disease is characterized by eruption of single bubbles in the absence of fever, other precipitation is very rich, accompanied by fever and the symptoms are severe General malaise. Severe course of the disease can take in malnourished, weakened children, especially under conditions of poor care.
When the scratching contaminated hands or bad skin care in the recording pyogenic microbial content of the bubbles become purulent. In place of these pustules after the falling away crusts can be scarring. Occasionally there may be other complications.
Chickenpox occurring simultaneously with any Other infectious disease (whooping cough, measles, scarlet fever, flu), aggravate it and promotes the development of various complications. Arising in the process of chronic diseases (tuberculosis, chronic dysentery and other), chickenpox can cause them to relapse.
Children, the sick with chicken pox, are treated at home and only some patients with severe illness, or with complications are placed in the hospital. The treatment is based on hygienic maintenance of the patient, warning accession pyogenic infection. We recommend the use of the baths of a weak solution of potassium permanganate. Thus it is necessary to avoid damage vetrenny bubbles. You need to monitor the cleanliness of the hands of the patient, his nails should be short and smooth cut. Recommended lubrication of bubbles of a 1% solution of potassium permanganate, and 1-2% aqueous or alcoholic solution brilliant green. Ill have more to rinse the mouth 2% soda solution or cooled boiled water. Severe chickenpox and various complications arising from it, are treated in the doctor's instructions.
The causative agent of varicella is a specific virus. The source of infection is a sick, starting from the first hours and up to 9-th day of illness (the child in the recovery period, when his skin has vetryanye brown, not dangerous to others). The infection is airborne.
The causative agent of varicella in the external environment very quickly perishes, so transmission through various items used by the patient, and through third parties, with whom he talked, not happening.
Susceptibility to chickenpox is very high. Reduced susceptibility observed in infants up to 6 months. Very rarely get sick with chickenpox children over 10 years old and adults, as they moved it in early childhood. After suffering varicella creates a strong lifelong immunity; re disease is observed in a rare exception. Transferred smallpox and successful smallpox vaccination does not provide immunity to chickenpox.
Armed whether we are effective ways of dealing with chickenpox, providing sharp decrease of morbidity? This question should be answered in the negative. However, this does not mean that all of our preventive measures are useless and that we should abandon attempts impact on the natural spread vetrennay infection.
Without mastering the methods of radical impact on the incidence of chickenpox, with total sanitation we can at least temporarily protect from the disease weakened and especially susceptible children with chickenpox can be serious form; we can prevent the development of outbreaks in institutions.
The most important preventive measure is isolation of the patient. The insulation is in the home for a period of infectiousness of the patient, i.e, up to 9-th day of illness. Given that the pathogen is spread by airborne droplets, and that already in the first day of the disease with extreme ease infection occurs all the children in the apartment, which is home sick, the division of his with them is belated and excessive measure. But, not allowing the patient in an institution and preventing his communication with other children, you can prevent new infections.
The children previously not ill with chicken pox and had contacts with the patient, are potential sources of contamination, after a time, equal to latent period chickenpox, i.e. from 11-21-day, they can get this infection. Therefore, in these terms, they should be separated from other children: to stop visiting orphanages, communication with other children in the apartment, in the yard, and so on Disinfection in the apartment of the patient should not be carried out, as the causative agent chickenpox unstable and quickly dies after separation from the human body.
Children who have chickenpox can take a heavy, it is recommended to introduce gamma globulin. Gamma globulin prepared from the blood serum of adults, as a rule, are immune to chicken pox. In their blood contains antibodies against varicella. The preventive effect of gamma globulin short - about 3 weeks. It is manifested in the reduction of morbidity; if the disease still occurs, it usually occurs in a lightweight.
So, the possibilities for prevention of the incidence of chickenpox is limited. Efficiency of measures largely depends on the conscious attitude and activity of parents and other adult family members.