Vitamin B12 and folic acid

Remarkable progress vitaminology in recent years associated with the opening of folic acid and vitamin B12 - two of vitamins, taking part in the blood and the formation of red blood cells (erythrocytes).
The formation of erythrocytes in bone marrow, where they enter the bloodstream. In one cubic millimeter of blood contains a large amount of about 5 million red blood cells. With increased destruction and violation of the formation of red blood cells their content in the blood decreases, develops anemia, or anemia. In case of anemia and decreases blood levels of hemoglobin.
Among the various forms of this disease is the most difficult pernicious anemia. Even in the recent past anemia was considered incurable.
The main symptom of the disease - reducing the number of red blood cells and the violation of their education in the bone marrow is accompanied by the appearance of blood abnormally large nuclear erythrocytes - megaloblastov. Normal Mature erythrocytes engines do not have.
In addition to changes in the bone marrow, violations of the functions of the digestive system and observed changes in the nervous system. Last are some of the most persistent and difficult to manage changes in the organism of patients with anemia.
What is the impact on the disease folic acid and vitamin B12, and what effect they have on the human body and animals? But before answering this question, we will meet first with the properties of folic acid.
Folic acid allocated for the first time from spinach leaves. In Latin sheet - "folium", and hence the name of this vitamin - folic acid. Crystals of this acid orange, soluble in hot water, worse - in cold water and alcohol.
Source of folic acid is the liver, and from plant products - yeast, spinach, cauliflower, green leaves of all plants. Intestinal bacteria that inhabit the intestines of humans and some animals, can form folic acid, thus providing a certain part of the needs in this vitamin.
Daily requirement of folic acid is uncertain and is according to one of 0.1 to 0.2 milligrams per day, and according to other sources - about 2 milligrams.
In food, it is contained in a linked form, which does not have vitamin activity, and only in the organism under the influence of special enzymes occurs transformation associated folic acid in free form is active. Enzymes engaged in this transformation, in the greatest quantities in liver, stomach and intestines.
Free form of folic acid is experiencing further transformation into the body and forms compounds, more active than itself folic acid. In the formation of these compounds involved vitamin C.
Folic acid contributes to the normal development of red blood cells, affects the formation of proteins in the body and is involved in the metabolism of fats.
Folic acid is successfully used in the treatment of anemia arising on the basis of malnutrition, pregnancy, diseases of the liver. Attempts to treat this acid pernicious anemia have not crowned success. This treatment has brought such patients only temporary relief and, most importantly, had no effect on the nervous system.
Win over this terrible disease science won after it has been opened another representative of b vitamins - vitamin B12, which is now rightfully bears the name of Antianemic vitamin.
The discovery of vitamin B12 is directly connected with the search for "beginning of the current" liver extracts, which have long been used for the treatment of malignant anaemia.
Since ancient times the liver was used for the treatment of various diseases. Such treatment was particularly successful in cases when patients ate not boiled and raw liver. However, a bad taste dishes made from such liver, often caused patients feeling insurmountable aversion. So great achievement in the treatment of malignant anaemia is manufacturing of hepatic concentrates, differing high medical activity. This allowed to enter them in the body of the patient in much smaller quantities than raw liver, not only inside but also intramuscularly through injections.
As rightly writes Professor I. A. Cashiers, opening the treatment of liver was one of the most brilliant achievements of medicine of the XX century. Pernicious anemia ceased to be a hopeless disease.
What are the healing properties of raw liver and liver concentrates? This question could be answered only in 1948, when almost simultaneously in England and the USA from the liver was allocated crystalline substance cures pernicious anemia. This substance was called vitamin B12. In the USSR industrial method of manufacture of crystalline vitamin B12 carried out in the Institute of biochemistry named A. N. Bach Academy of Sciences of the USSR.
Part of vitamin B12 includes cobalt, dye crystals of this vitamin in red. Aqueous solutions of vitamin tolerate sterilized at 100 degrees and not destroyed during the subsequent long-term storage.
The content of vitamin B12 in the liver is small. Suffice it to say that a ton of liver it is possible to select only 25 milligrams. However, the therapeutic activity of vitamin B12 is extremely high. So it is prescribed in ppm grams or schemes.
Apparently, the only source of education of vitamin B12 in nature are microorganisms: bacteria, radiant fungus and algae. In a large number of its form, the bacteria that inhabit the stomach of ruminants (cows), subject to the presence in its food integral part of this vitamin - cobalt. Small amounts of vitamin B12 is formed, probably, and in the human intestine.
A huge amount of vitamin B12 are formed in water treatment stations, where applicable wastewater treatment using bacteria. A lot of it in those wastes, which are formed in the production of antibiotics. And some of these drugs is known to result from life of radiant fungus. All these wastes and are currently the source for the industrial preparation of crystalline vitamin B12.
From animal products, most vitamin B12 is found in liver and kidneys of animals and fish. Small amounts are present in milk and milk products.
The human need for vitamin B12 is small and accounts for only 2-3 gamma per day. Under normal conditions, the content of it in food is quite sufficient to ensure normal functioning of the body. Why do people may experience a shortage of vitamin B12 and the associated disease, pernicious anemia?
Currently, found that vitamin B12 is contained in food and in the free state. In this form it is easily absorbed by the intestinal bacteria and cannot be used by the body. Prevents vitamin B12 from such a takeover by bacteria special protein - mucoprotein secreted by cells of the mucous membrane of the stomach and contained in the gastric juice of every healthy person.
By uniting with mucoprotein, vitamin B12 enters the intestine without being subject to capture by bacteria, and easily passes through the intestinal wall, walking out into the liver and then in the bone marrow and other organs. Gastric juice patients with malignant anemia does not contain mucoprotein. Therefore, vitamin B12, introduced them with food are absorbed and removed from it through the intestines.
Thus, pernicious anemia occurs not because of a lack of vitamin B12 in the diet, but from the primary lesion of mucous membrane of the stomach, causing it to stop making mucoprotein. Such patients vitamin B12 is injected intramuscularly or give in with preparations containing mucoprotein. A single dose of intramuscular introduction - 30 decks and in the course of treatment usually requires 300-500 schemes. The beneficial effect of vitamin B12 effect very soon, probably after the first injection.
In a Moscow clinic was taken sick, 41 years, with all the characteristic features of malignant anaemia. The patient was a lemon-yellow colour, bright red swollen tongue. She complained of General weakness, noise in the ears, flicker in the eyes, dizziness, shortness of breath, palpitations, pain in the heart area, loss of appetite and weight in the stomach. The patient was short-tempered, irritable, tearful. Felt numbness in the fingers and toes, decreasing sensitivity on his feet. "My feet as wool",- said the patient. Especially bothered her pain in the language, which was intensified when taking salty, sour, spicy and hot food. In the study of blood in her was found only about a million of red blood cells and 28 percent of hemoglobin.
In the clinic the patient was prescribed treatment with vitamin B12. And literally with miraculous speed the day after the first injection - intramuscular 30 schemes of this vitamin in the patient's condition has been the undoubted improvement. Starting from the 4 th day, began increasing the number of red blood cells and hemoglobin. The course of treatment needed only 240 schemes of vitamin B12. The patient was discharged from the hospital in good condition. The number of erythrocytes by this time she had reached 4 million, and hemoglobin was 67 percent. All gone severe symptoms of the disease.
How valid vitamin B12 in the blood processes in the bone marrow, just not yet installed. There is an assumption that he exerts its activity together with folic acid.
The value of vitamin B12 for humans and animals is not limited to its impact on hematopoiesis. Vitamin B12 promotes the use of protein in the body, regulates the accumulation of fats in the liver and perform a number of other critical to the body's functions.
With the medical purpose vitamin B12 is used not only for treatment of malignant anaemia, but with anemia during pregnancy, diseases of the intestines and other Favorable results from the use of this vitamin was observed in the treatment of eating disorders in children, diseases of liver, with radiation sickness, in some diseases of the nervous system and skin diseases.
Wide use of vitamin B12 received recently in animal husbandry.