More than 75 years have passed since then, as the Russian Explorer Nikolai Lunin found that, in food, in addition fats, proteins, carbohydrates and salts, contains some previously unknown substances necessary for human health. Subsequently, these substances were named vitamins. In Latin "Vita" means "life". Therefore, the term "vitamins" indicates the role of these substances in the organism vital activity.
And then there was a new independent science - vitaminology that studies the chemical structure of vitamins, their effects on humans and animals, as well as issues of their practical application.
The discovery of vitamins played a major role in medicine. This was explained the reason of such mass in the recent past diseases such as scurvy, rickets, pellagra, Beri-Beri, night blindness, set to a lack of vitamins in the origin of such serious diseases as pernicious anemia, and found the means of treatment. As medicines, vitamins are now widely used for treatment of various diseases.
To ensure demand adult in proteins, fats and carbohydrates, it must receive daily with food on average 106 grams of protein, about 1.00 grams of fat and 415 grams of carbohydrate. The daily also the need for vitamins is expressed in milligrams, or even thousandths of shares milligrams, which are designated by the Greek letter gamma.
Vitamins are a constant and indispensable part of the body. They needed to respiratory tissue, normal growth and development of an organism, formation of bones, blood coagulation and many other vital processes. Proper use of the body of protein, fat, carbohydrates, mineral salts is possible only with the participation of vitamins.
All life processes occurring in the body flow with the participation of enzymes. In recent years, scientists have determined that they contain many vitamins. Therefore, participation in enzymatic processes is the basis of biological action of vitamins.
When the chemical structure of vitamins have not been studied, they were called letters of the Latin alphabet: vitamin a, b, C, and so on, But soon it has been proven that vitamin, known by the name, is not one connection, and a whole group of substances that have besides different effect on the body. These substances are now in vitamins of group, was named B1, B2, B3, B4, and so on, the Last in this group was opened vitamin B12, having, as we'll see, important for hematopoiesis.
In the future, when the vitamins were isolated from vegetable and animal products in a chemically pure and has finally found their structure, some of the vitamins were called in accordance with the chemical nature: B2 - Riboflavin, B6 - pyridoxine etc.
Just now there are about 30 different vitamins, and many of them have already been synthesized and are produced by the industry.
Vitamins have different chemical and physical properties. Solubility in water and fats are divided into fat-soluble (a, D, and E) and water-soluble (C, P and numerous b vitamins).
The ability to form vitamins have mainly plants, yeast, algae and bacteria. Less developed it for the animals, but not all of them can form the same vitamins. This determines the sensitivity of various animals to the deficiency of certain vitamins in food, namely those that are not produced by the body. It is very important that the person is not self-education of vitamins and he receives them only with food.

The main achievements in the field vitaminology associated with successful receipt by artificial means almost all known vitamins, which made it possible to organize industrial production of vitamins and provide nutrition for the population in the most distant places of our country, regardless of their location and time of year. It is no exaggeration to say that the discovery of vitamins largely contributed to the development of the Far North. Our explorers, equipped with highly active preparations of vitamin C and other vitamins, not now threatens death from scurvy - lot, which is not avoided in the past, many courageous explorers of the Arctic.
Widely and successfully applied now vitamins for treatment and, more importantly, prevent many serious diseases. Found their place vitamins and livestock. Enrichment feed vitamins a, D and B12 promotes greater gain animals in weight and greater levels of these vitamins in their milk and meat. All this increases not only vitamins, but also protein resources in human nutrition.
The study of vitamins continues. There is no doubt that in this area we will have many remarkable discoveries, which will be used to promote health and prolong life.