The infusion of children

The infusion of children is used for the introduction of medicinal substances and the different solutions with the purpose of rehydration therapy (recovery of loss of fluid, caused by dehydration - dehydration). Infusion is divided into subcutaneous, intravenous, and intraosseous.
In time they can be instantly (single and repeated during the day) and long drip. Subcutaneous injections performed more often in the front-the outer part of the thigh, abdomen, rarely in the armpit or the lower edge of the blade. Infusion under the skin convenient to carry out long needles with a small cross section. The liquid is injected slowly, the number depends on the age of the child. Nursing baby you can enter 50-100 ml izotoniceski solution of sodium chloride 1-2 times a day, children of older age from 200 to 800 ml Despite the simplicity, the method subcutaneous injections has a number of disadvantages. The procedure is painful, especially with the introduction of large quantities of fluid. Suction of fluid from the subcutaneous tissue is slow, so when developed dehydration introduced subcutaneously fluid contributes little to restore the violated hemodynamics, and with the collapse of this method ineffective. In these cases, need intravenous infusion. A single intravenous infusion of conduct in the vein of the elbow bend, the back of the hand, foot, in children of early age in the veins of his head. After fixing of the child and disinfection of the selected site make venipuncture (see). Solutions of drugs injected slowly. The amount of liquid in a single 10-20 ml per 1 kg of weight of a child, but not more than 120 to 200 ml Single infusion should be particularly cautious if the child has severe pneumonia or cardiovascular insufficiency. In these cases, and in severe dehydration establish long drip.
For drip infusion, in addition to the core set of needles and sterile material required tires for fixing the limbs of the child, sterile apparatus for injections. In drip infusion in Vienna head carefully to fix the needle (Fig. 4). If infusion spend more than 24 hours, it is necessary to change the whole system of drip infusions. Speed infusions at the first hour of 25 to 30 drops per 1 minute, in the future, 8-15 drops in 1 minute If the child venipuncture fails, it is recommended that venezela (see). Affordable and convenient method intraosseous infusion, technically easy to implement and does not require additional fixation of the needle.
When intraosseous infusion necessary short lumbar or sternal needle. For intraosseous infusion usually use the proximal tibial metaphysis, heel bone, and in older children and sternum. After numbing the skin and periosteum of 0.25-0.5% solution novokaina the rotational movement of the needle to the feeling of failure in the void (needle hit the medullar channel). Then the needle is attached to the system. The duration of bone marrow infusion 24-48 hours at a speed of 6 to 20 drops per 1 min. For the prevention of osteomyelitis injections are under mandatory protection of antibiotics and in strict compliance with the rules of aseptics and antiseptics.