The influence of alcoholism parents on postnatal development of the child

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C. 3. Pashchenko (1981) from 30.7% of children born to women who abuse alcohol, have observed various neuropsychiatric disorders, weakening of the sucking reflex in the neonatal period (21%), disorders of the functions of the gastrointestinal tract (20,5%), diateza (21,3%), the combination of which can lead to the death of a child during infancy. It was noted neurological disorders such as strabismus (12.1%), weakness of arms and legs (6.5%), urinary incontinence (30,2%), sudorozhny syndrome (4,4%), microcephaly (3,2%), hydrocephalus (2.1 per cent). Usually teeth progresyvios on 10-11 months.
Almost the same figures leads Century, Lunin (1978). Of the surveyed families in 197 alcoholism suffered mother, 228 - father. Premature birth were set at 14%, is complicated-at 14%, asphyxia at birth 22%, no sucking reflex - 21% of newborns, dyspepsia - 20,5%, diathesis - 21,3%, spazmofiliya - 17,6%, delayed physical development - 19,8%, delay of speech - in 18.7%, enuresis - 26,5%, mental retardation - 18.8%. And more expressed pathology observed in alcoholism in the mother. In the period of schooling of these children suffered less memory, fatigue, irritability, headaches, asthenia (Romanova M. Century, 1978).
In patients with alcoholism parents 98,3% of the children born outside the period of alcoholism, began to speak at the age of 1.5 years, 1,7%-up to 2 years. Born in the period of alcoholism began to speak to 1.5 years 33.6% of children under 2 years-31,1%, to 3-27,7%to 4 - 6,5% and up to 5-1,1% (Romanova M. Century, 1977), sit in 8-12 months. Phrase speech was formed to 3-5 years (Fisenko A. I., 1974). These children with some delay (3-4 years) was developed skills neatness, with the work they were trained service skills. From the first year of life, children were stubborn, irritable, touchy, wary, fickle, prone to dramatic reactions. However, in the children's team, though with difficulty, but was kept. Unlike other children they were poorly grasped the requirements of educators, with difficulty memorizing short poems, games were passive, balasoupramanien, could not stand up for themselves among peers. Violations in psychophysical development of polymorphic and are not specific, although the frequency and depth of their manifestation directly depends on the progression of alcoholism of parents in the period of conception (Lunin Century BC, 1978).
However, defects such as urinary incontinence, a delay in speech development walking cannot be explained only by the improper education and traumatization of personality in the family of alcoholics, that is, they are conditioned not only by the influence of micro-social environment for novice to live child. During this period he already detected defects, mental and physical development. Probably, it is very important biological factors, because of chronic alcohol intoxication affects the biological system of the body responsible for the reproductive function.
Along with the toxic effect of alcohol on the child's body during pregnancy, certainly play a role and social factors: conflict situations in the family, constant mental trauma to children, malnutrition and others, caused by drunkenness parents and adversely affect the mental development of children. However, in some cases the child's body for a considerable time remains resistant to adverse external influences and only prolonged stressful situation leads to patoharakterologicheskih shifts, especially in adolescence. But more often these children appear sooner irritability, anxiety. Often have sleep disorders, accompanied by a disturbing dreams, night terrors. Many complain of a headache, fatigue. According to L. M. Tulikova (1975), chronic alcoholism mother or both parents disabilities meet more than half of the children.
Research E. M. of Akulova-Bagaley (1970) suggests that the role of alcoholism parents especially great in occurs in children neuropathies, neuroses, psychopathy and psychopathic States. These diseases occur in 30-45% of all children under surveillance in children's psychoneurologic dispensaries.